¾ Emphasized importance of needs to motivation. • Weaknesses of Maslow’s Theory ¾ All levels of need are not always present. ¾ Ordering or importance of needs is not always the same. ¾ Cultural differences can impact the ordering and salience of needs. Content Perspectives… (cont’d) • The ERG Theory (Aldefer) ¾ Needs are grouped into overlapping categories: Existence needs—physiological and security needs. Relatedness needs Growth needs—self-esteem and self-actualization. ¾ ERG theory assumes that: Multiple needs can be operative at one time (there is no absolute hierarchy of needs). If a need is unsatisfied, a person will regress to a lower- level need and pursue that need (frustration-regression). Content Perspectives… (cont’d) • The Two-Factor Theory (Herzberg) ¾ Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are influenced by two independent sets of factors. ¾ Theory assumes that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are on two distinct continuums: Motivational factors (work content) are on a continuum that ranges from satisfaction to no satisfaction. Hygiene factors (work environment) are on a separate continuum that ranges from dissatisfaction to no dissatisfaction. ¾ Theory posits that motivation is a two-step process Ensuring that the hygiene factors are not deficient and not blocking motivation.
MGMT 309 - Wesson 79 Content Perspectives on Motivation (cont’d) • Individual Human Needs (McClelland) ¾ The need for achievement The desire to accomplish a goal or task more effectively than in the past. ¾ The need for affiliation ¾ The need for power The desire to be influential in a group and to be in control of one’s environment. Motivation Process Perspectives • Process Perspectives ¾ Approaches to motivation that focus on: Search for behavioral options and alternatives Choice of behavioral options to satisfy needs Rewards and evaluation of satisfaction after goals are attained. Motivation Process Perspectives (cont’d) • Expectancy Theory ¾ Motivation depends on how much we want something and how likely we are to get it. ¾ Assumes that: Personal and environmental forces determine behavior People make decisions about their behavior in organizations. People have different types of needs, desires, and goals. People choose among alternatives of behaviors in selecting one that that leads to a desired outcome. Motivation leads to effort that, when combined with ability and environmental factors, results in performance which leads to outcomes having value (valence) to employees.
MGMT 309 - Wesson 80 Elements of Expectancy Theory • Effort-to-Performance Expectancy ¾ Employee’s perception of the probability that effort will lead to a high level of performance. • Performance-to-Outcome Expectancy ¾ Employee’s perception of the probability that performance will lead to a specific outcome—the consequence or reward for behaviors in an organizational setting.
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