electrons closer to the nucleus, making the radius smaller). Carbon is the only element in period 2, while silicon and sodium are in period 3. Therefore, carbon possesses the smallest atomic radius, while sodium has the biggest atomic radius, and silicon is in between. 5. F, N, and P is the order of decreasing ionization energy. Ionization energy decreases going down a column and increases going across a row. F’s nuclear charge increases as it is furthest from the left of the row (group 17) compared to N and P (group 15), and is in a period higher, which makes electron weaker, requiring less energy to remove it. 6. F, Cl, and Al is the order of decreasing electronegativity. Electronegativity decreases going down a column and increases going across a row. Al has the least electronegativity because it has 3 electrons on the valence level, suggesting a weaker nuclear charge and more energy levels than Cl and F. Cl and F contain 7 valence electrons, creating a larger force to “steal” an electron. 7. Rb, Na, and Mg is the order of decreasing chemical reactivity. Since the elements listed are metals, chemical reactivity increases as we go down the column and decreases as we go across the row. Alkali metals, which
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