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leads to homogenization ●tend to perpetuate stereotypes 6.Intersectionality ○Intersectionality■the study of intersections between forms or systems of oppression, domination or discrimination.7.Theories of deviance ○Functionalist Theories: see crime and deviance resulting from structural tensions and lack a moral regulation within society ■Crime and Anomie: Durkheim and Merton ●Durkheim a.crime is necessary b.the notion of anomiesituation in which social norms lose their hold over individual’s behaviors, or when no clear standards guide behavior in a given area of social life→ disoriented, anxious→ suicide c.brings about change d.promotes boundary maintenance between “good” and “bad” behavior e.heightens group solidarity and clarifies social norms ●Merton a.Deviance is a byproduct of economic equalities b.5 possible types: conformist, innovators, ritualists, retreatists and rebels c.Institutionalized means acceptreject
Conformity Innovation Ritualism Retreatism ●Cohen a.gangs- celebrate nonconformity ○Interactionist Theories: Deviance is socially constructed ■differential association: social environments encourage illegal activities ■Labeling Theory; Howard S. Becker ●labeling theory: An approach to the study of deviance that suggest that people become “deviant” because certain labels are attached to their behavior by political authorities and others ●marijuana study ●once a child is labeled a delinquent he follows through w it a.primary deviation: the initial act of transgression b.secondary deviation: indiv accepts the label and sees himself as a deviant ●labeling theory no act is intrinsically criminal but may become so through the formulation of laws and their interpretation by police, courts etc. a.even killing not always regarded as murder ○Conflict Theory■Conflict theory draws on elements of Marxist thought to argue that deviance is deliberate and often political. ■deviance is response to inequalities of the capitalist system ○Control Theory■Control Theory crime results from an imbalance between impulses towards criminal activity and the social or physical controls that deter it. Control theorists hold that criminals are rational beings who will act to maximize their own reward unless they are rendered unable to do so through social and physical control ■Hirschi ●4 types of bonds that link people to society and law-abiding behavior: attachment, commitment, involvement, belief ●delinquents have low level of self control from inadequate socialization ○Theory of Broken Window; Am■target hardening and zero-tolerance policing ■minor acts of deviance lead to a spiral of crime and social decay ■critique: lacks a systematic definition of defiance 8.Types of Sanctions ○A sanctionis any reaction from others that is meant to ensure that a person or group complies with a given norm
○may be positive (the offering of rewards for conformity) or negative (punishment for