the same time, the US worked out with the 23 other Western nations the General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which proposed to stimulate freer trade among the participants, creating an enormous market for American goods and investment. f. Reconstruction of Japan i. How did the reconstruction of Japan follow America’s new idea of freedom? ● Japan adopted a new democratic constitution and eliminated absentee landlordism so that most tenant farmers became owners of land. The new constitutions gave women the right to vote for the first time in Japan’s history. Article 9 of the new constitution stated that Japan would renounce forever the policy of war and armed aggression and would maintain only a modest self-defense force. The US oversaw the economic reconstruction of Japan. Initially, the US proposed to dissolve Japan’s giant industrial corporations, which had contributed so much to the nation’s war effort. But the plan was abandoned in 1948 in favor of an effort to rebuild Japan’s industrial base as a bastion of anti-communist strength in Asia. By the 1950, thanks to American economic assistance, the adoption of new technologies, and low spending on the military, Japan’s economic recovery was in full swing. g. The Berlin Blockade and NATO i. What caused the Berlin Blockade and how did the USA respond? ● In June 1948, the US, Britain, and France introduced a separate currency in their zones, a prelude to the creation of a new West German government that would be aligned with them in the Cold War. In response, the Soviets cut off road and rail traffic form the American, British, and French zones of occupied Germany to Berlin. An 11 month airlift followed, with Western planes supplying fuel and food to their zone of the city. When Stalin lifted the blockade in May 1949, the Truman administration had won a major victory. Germany soon divided (East and West), with each allied with a side in the Cold War. Berlin remained divided. The city’s western part survived as an isolated enclave within East Germany. Germany reunified in 1991. ii.What did the Soviet Union test in 1949 causing fear among Americans and their leaders? iii.What was the “North Atlantic Treaty Organization” and what was its purpose?