Animal models are often imperfect representations of

Info icon This preview shows pages 10–12. Sign up to view the full content.

Animal models are often imperfect representations of the human disorder Example) Mice don't naturally get Alzheimer's diseases ...however, can be transgenically engineered to express human proteins that cause Alzheimer's-like symptoms in mice. Neuroethology: is one approach to the study of the neural basis of behavior that emphasizes the study of natural behavior Often based initially on behavioral studies/observations done in the field Focuses on behaviors that are critical for animals' survival (finding food and mates, avoiding predators, navigating etc.) Diverse model systems Case study: Reflex Circuits in Tritona We have a complete neural circuit–to–behavior understanding of how this behavior is produced Sensory neurons: detect stimuli Gating interneurons Command neuron : critical neuron in the network – when activated, turns on pattern generator Central pattern generator (CPG): contained neural network that produces rhythmic motor output Efferent neurons: activate muscles Tritonia predator avoidance involves a locomotory reflex and propels the animal away from sea stars. Sensory neurons detect aversive stimuli Sensory information is received and integrated by a command neuron. Command neuron firing activates the central pattern generator CPG activity excites neurons eliciting dorsal and ventral muscle contractions which produce muscle behavior Case study: Neuroethology of Spatial Memory Goal: contrast this case study with what you have already learned about the study of learning and memory in rodents. Classic neuroethological system for studying spatial memory is birds that store food for later retrieval Ethology of seed-caching in Clark's Nutcracker 1-14 seeds per cache
Image of page 10

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

stored in sublingual pouch before caching 2-3 cm deep, ca. 30 s per cache, not marked > 80% recovery rate over winter months recover through snow or after leaves have fallen up to > 7,000 caches (ca. 22K – 33K individual seeds) Caching birds have bigger hippocampi Hippocampi grow in size when caching behavior increase in the fall Between-species comparisons high vs. low food caching birds brood parasitic vs. non-brood parasitic birds monogynous vs. polygynous mates Within-species comparisons summer vs. fall chickadees harsh vs. mild climate chickadees Populations in harsh climates hoard more and have larger hippocampi Experimental methods hippocampal lesions in chickadees Neuroethology of spatial memory Proximate insights: Bigger hippocampus is important for spatial ability, but tells less about mechanisms How does a large hippocampus facilitate better memory? Ultimate insights: Design principles Brains can evolve in a mosaic fashion (parts can get bigger or smaller without changing the entire brain).
Image of page 11
Image of page 12
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.
  • Fall '12
  • PaulLipton
  • cells

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern