Iii leader centered approaches a leader traits and

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III. Leader-Centered Approaches A. Leader Traits and Skills Focus 1. The traits and skills focus assumes that some people have certain physical characteristics (such as height and appearance), aspects of personality (such as self- esteem, dominance, conscientiousness, and emotional stability) and aptitudes (such as general intelligence, verbal fluency, and creativity) that cause them to be successful leaders. 2. Trait research suggested that successful leaders possessed the following skills to a greater extent than others. a. drive b. motivation c. honesty and Integrity d. self-confidence e. conceptual ability f. business knowledge 178
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Chapter 12: Leading in a Dynamic Environment 3. These characteristics do not guarantee successful leadership, nor does the absence of any one of them rule out the possibility of becoming a leader. B. Leadership Behavior Focus 1. The behavior focus examines what effective leaders do rather than what effective leaders are. 2. Task Orientation a. The task orientation involves things such as setting performance goals, planning and scheduling work, coordinating activities, giving directions, setting standards, providing resources, and supervising worker performance. 3. Relations Orientation a. The relations orientation involves things such as showing empathy for concerns and feelings, being supportive of needs, showing trust, demonstrating appreciation, establishing trusting relationships, and allowing subordinates to participate in decision making. C. Leadership Power Focus 1. Power is defined as the ability to use human, informational, or material resources to get something done. Authority is the right to get something done and is officially sanctioned. 2. Position power is power derived from opportunities inherent in a position in an organization. There are four types of position power. a. Legitimate power is power that stems from formal authority. b. Coercive power is the power to discipline, punish, and withhold rewards. c. Reward power is the power to control tangible benefits, such as a promotion, a better job, better work schedule, a larger operating budget, an increased expense account, and formal recognition of accomplishments. d. Information power is control over information. 3. Personal power is power derived from the interpersonal relationship between leaders and followers. There are two types of personal power. a. Expert power is the power to influence another person because of expert knowledge and competence. 179
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Chapter 12: Leading in a Dynamic Environment b. Referent power is the ability to influence others based on personal liking, charisma, and reputation. It is manifested through imitation or emulation. 4. A personalized power orientation is associated with a strong need for esteem and status; power is often used impulsively.
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