Reconcile their wealth and social authority with

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reconcile their wealth and social authority with republican values,Ellsworth dressed with restraint and his manners, remarked Timothy Dwight, were “wholly destitute of haughtiness and arrogance.” Wadsworth Athenaeum/Art Resource, NY . Ideological Politics As Americans profited from Europe’s struggles, they argued passionately over its ideologies. Most Americans had welcomed the French Revolution of 1789 because it abolished feudalism and established a constitutional monarchy. The creation of the First French Republic was more controversial.Urban artisans applauded the end of the monarchy and embraced the democratic, socially egalitarian ideology of the radical Jacobins. Like the Jacobins, they formed political clubs and began to address one another as “citizen.” However, Americans with strong religious beliefs condemned the new French government for closing Christian churches and promoting a rational religion based on “natural morality.” Fearing social revolution at home, wealthy Americans condemned Robespierre and his vengeance-minded followers for executing King Louis XVI and 3,000 aristocrats (see Voices from Abroad ).
Their fears were well founded, because Hamilton’s economic policies quickly sparked a domestic insurgency. In 1794, western Pennsylvania farmers,already angered by the state’s conservative fiscal policies, mounted the so-called Whiskey Rebellion to protest Hamilton’s excise tax on spirits. This tax had cut demand for the corn whiskey the farmers distilled and bartered for eastern manufactures. Like the Sons of Liberty in 1765 and the Shaysites in 1786, the Whiskey Rebels assailed the tax collectors who sent the farmers’ hard-earned money to a distant government. But the protesters also waved banners proclaiming the French revolutionary slogan “Liberty, Equality,Fraternity!” To deter popular rebellion and uphold national authority,President Washington raised an army of 12,000 troops and dispersed the Whiskey Rebels. Jay’s Treaty Britain’s maritime strategy intensified political divisions in America. Beginning in late 1793, the British navy seized 250 American ships carrying French sugar and other goods.Hoping to protect merchant property through diplomacy, Washington dispatched John Jay to Britain. But Jay returned with a controversial treaty that ignored the American claim that “free ships make free goods” and accepted Britain’s right to stop neutral ships. The treaty also required the U.S. government to make “full and complete compensation” to British merchants for pre–Revolutionary War debts owed by American citizens. In return, the agreement allowed Americans to submit claims for illegal seizures and required the British to remove their troops and Indian agents from the Northwest Territory. Despite Republican charges that Jay’s Treaty was too conciliatory, the Senate ratified it in 1795, but only by the two-thirds majority required by the Constitution. As long as the Federalists were in power, the United States would have a pro-British foreign policy. The French Revolution Divides Americans

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