Ing institutions that a conventional academic career

This preview shows page 10 - 12 out of 28 pages.

We have textbook solutions for you!
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
An Introduction to Physical Science
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
Chapter 1 / Exercise 4
An Introduction to Physical Science
Shipman/Wilson
Expert Verified
ing institutions that a conventional academic career was impos- sible. He spent most of his life in exile from his native Germany. Marx’s personal life was a difficult struggle. When a paper he had written was suppressed, he fled to France. In Paris, he met anomie, people are so confused and unable to cope with the new social environment that they may resort to suicide. Durkheim was concerned about the dangers that alienation, loneliness, and isolation might pose for modern industrial societies. He shared Comte’s belief that sociology should provide direction for social change. As a result, he advocated the creation of new social groups—mediators between the individual’s family and the state— that would provide a sense of belonging for members of huge, impersonal societies. Unions would be an example of such groups. Like many other sociologists, Durkheim did not limit his interests to one aspect of social behavior. Later in this book we will consider his thinking on crime and punishment, religion, and the workplace. Few sociologists have had such a dramatic impact on so many different areas within the discipline. Max Weber Another important early theorist was Max Weber (pronounced vay -ber). Born in Germany, Weber (1864–1920) studied legal and economic history, but gradually developed an interest in sociology. Eventually, he became a professor at various German universi- ties. Weber taught his students that they should employ verstehen (pronounced fair-shtay-en), the German word for “understanding” or “insight,” in their intellectual work. He pointed out that we cannot analyze our social behavior by the same type of objective criteria we use to measure weight or temperature. To fully comprehend behav- ior, we must learn the subjective meanings people attach to their actions—how they themselves view and explain their behavior. For example, suppose that a sociologist was studying the social ranking of individuals in a fraternity. Weber would expect the researcher to employ verstehen to determine the signifi- cance of the fraternity’s social hierarchy for its members. The researcher might examine the effects of athleticism or grades or social skills or seniority on standing within the fraternity. He FIGURE 2-1 Contributors to Sociology Émile Durkheim 1858–1917 Max Weber 1864–1920 Karl Marx 1818–1883 W. E. B. DuBois 1868–1963 Academic training Key works Philosophy Law, economics, history, philosophy Philosophy, law Sociology 1893— The Division of Labor in Society 1897— Suicide: A Study in Sociology 1912— Elementary Forms of Religious Life 1904–1905— The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism 1921— Economy and Society 1848— The Communist Manifesto 1867— Das Kapital 1899— The Philadelphia Negro 1903— The Negro Church 1903— Souls of Black Folk
We have textbook solutions for you!
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
An Introduction to Physical Science
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
Chapter 1 / Exercise 4
An Introduction to Physical Science
Shipman/Wilson
Expert Verified
12 CHAPTER 1 Understanding Sociology principles to study social problems such as those experienced by Blacks in the United States. To separate opinion from fact, he advocated basic research on the lives of Blacks. Through his in-

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture