Hardly need stress that on the organizational side

This preview shows page 5 - 7 out of 22 pages.

hardly need stress that, on the organizational side, the university is a quintessentially globalized institution (Riddle 1993).With this background in mind, let us turn to the globalization of the individual.The individualMany globalizing forces embed the individual as the fundamental unit of social action and meaning. Most central in this respect is mass schooling, as indicated above. Schooling treats children primarily as individuals whose capacities and char-acter are to be developed in line with standardized global models of the productive, loyal, efficacious and rights-endowed actor (Meyer et al. 1992). The ideology of egalitarian schooling, widely embraced rhetorically and imperfectly implemented
108john boli and velina petrovapractically, shoves aside identities based on primordial or ascribed collectivities (the family, village, ethnicity etc.) in favour of individual development, industry and achievement (cf. Frank and Meyer 2002). Schooling confers individualized creden-tials that constitute significant status and identity markers (Collins 1979), both general (the secondary school graduate, the university degree holder) and specific (the certified accountant, the agricultural adviser). In counterpoint, school failure also confers a significant individualized status (the high-school dropout). Schooling is crucial to the occupational trajectories of individuals and their life chances across a great many domains (Levin et al. 1971), thanks in no small part to its capacity to convince the schooled that they possess individuality that overrides the stereo-typed qualities and capacities associated with collective identities.The globalization of schooling has been a massive enterprise in the postwar era, both in terms of global organizations (IGOs, especially UNESCO, and many education-related INGOs) that propagate global schooling models and aid in the construction of school systems, and in the state-directed schooling expansion process that has rapidly incorporated most of the world’s children in schools (Meyer et al. 1992). The enrolment data are remarkable: in 2001–2, some 84 per cent of the world’s children were enrolled in primary schools, 55 per cent of the world’s youth population was enrolled in secondary schools and tertiary education enrolments amounted to 23 per cent of the world’s young adults (UNESCO 2005). Not entirely coincidentally, literacy has greatly increased as well, rising from about 56 per cent of the world’s population in 1970 (UIS 2002) to about 82 per cent at the turn of the century (UNESCO 2005). And, as Ramirez and colleagues have shown in numerous studies (e.g. Ramirez and Wotipka 2001; Bradley and Ramirez 1996), this expansion has become almost gender-blind, at all educational levels. Worldwide, in 2001–2 girls accounted for 48.5 per cent of primary enrolments, 47.1 per cent of secondary enrol-ments and 50.5 per cent of tertiary enrolments, with more women than men enrolled in higher education in 90 of the 144 countries reporting data, including most of the large-population countries (UNESCO 2005). Global models of the individual carried

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture