- Well organized system: low entropy Entropy is possible on a closed system (so no sun, no wind etc). The entropy is an indicator of the unusable quantity of energy contained in a system, that cannot produce any energy. The thermodynamics schoolGeorgescu-Roegen (1971)The entropy law and the economic process. ==> if we use only high entropy, the earth might collapse in a few years. The economics of the coming spaceship earth Boilding (1966)Comparison of the Spaceship economyand the cowboy economy(= ex Brazil, they didn't care about consequences by deforesting, just about profit). New way of living in earth, called the spaceship earth: increase the entropy much more slowly.be careful of what we eat, limit waste, recycle etc.Now we are shifting towards the Spaceship economy. Daly (1991) - Switch as much as possible from material(oil, meat, goods) to cultural consumption(cinema, museum, culture, education, information). In western societies we do more & more of that, we consume less goods and more immaterial thing. - we have to stop population growth: more waste, more production so bad for environment. but such a proposal is very unpopular (ex: unique child in China)
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- harvest only the natural growthof resources on earth => for ex if 10 fish were born each year you can only fish 10 fish. - promote recyclingLimit to growth! The Meadows report Meadows (1972)With the club of Rome, they build a model of the earth resources = what we have. Prediction: if we keep consuming like the 1990, the earth will collapse since we will come short on natural resources. It was very criticized by the other economists. c) Ecological sciences In economics we deal with a smooth continuous process, so you get the impression that world is also very smooth, continuous etc.Biology: the world is full of catastrophes, nonlinear processes, discontinuities etc. So, it is important to consider some biological approach Damageeconomist biologyTemperature tipping point (where the consequences are irreversible, ex: melt of the arctic, bees disappear etc.)
IV.Sustainability 24/09/2019 What could make the economy collapse at some point? Collapse, Jored Diamand The case of Easter Island: At the time it was discovered by western people in the XVIII century, the society was already collapsed. Why? Because they have destroyed the environment (destroyed the forest, no agriculture). There was no feedback mechanism, no way to reverse the process. Same case as Tikopia: but here the civilization didn’t collapse! Why not similar with Easter Island? Because they took big measures to stop the growth of the population. 1991: World summit of Rio Birth of the concern of sustainability: preventing the idea of the collapse of the economy. Context: people start to realize that there is: Overexploitationof natural resources Climate changebegan to be discussed Criticism of development strategies: it would become a problem if all of the developing countries would follow the same path as industrialized countries regarding the use of fossil energies New technological risks:
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