2136 amendment 14rights guaranteed rather consider

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rather consider the issue in the context of the vital importance of education in 1954. The Court reasoned that denial of opportunity for an adequate education would often be a denial of the opportu- nity to succeed in life, that separation of the races in the schools solely on the basis of race must necessarily generate feelings of in- feriority in the disfavored race adversely affecting education as well as other matters, and therefore that the Equal Protection Clause was violated by such separation. “We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.” 1675 After hearing argument on what remedial order should issue, the Court remanded the cases to the lower courts to adjust the ef- fectuation of its mandate to the particularities of each school dis- trict. “At stake is the personal interest of the plaintiffs in admis- sion to public schools as soon as practicable on a nondiscriminatory basis.” The lower courts were directed to “require that the defen- dants make a prompt and reasonable start toward full compli- ance,” although “[o]nce such a start has been made,” some addi- tional time would be needed because of problems arising in the course of compliance and the lower courts were to allow it if on inquiry delay were found to be “in the public interest and [to be] consistent with good faith compliance . . . to effectuate a transition to a ra- cially nondiscriminatory school system.” In any event, however, the lower courts were to require compliance “with all deliberate speed.” 1676 Brown’s Aftermath. —For the next several years, the Court de- clined to interfere with the administration of its mandate, ruling only in those years on the efforts of Arkansas to block desegrega- tion of schools in Little Rock. 1677 In the main, these years were taken up with enactment and administration of “pupil placement laws” by which officials assigned each student individually to a school on the basis of formally nondiscriminatory criteria, and which re- quired the exhaustion of state administrative remedies before each pupil seeking reassignment could bring individual litigation. 1678 The lower courts eventually began voiding these laws for discrimina- tory application, permitting class actions, 1679 and the Supreme Court 1675 Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483, 489–90, 492–95 (1954). 1676 Brown v. Board of Education, 349 U.S. 294, 300–01 (1955). 1677 Cooper v. Aaron, 358 U.S. 1 (1958). 1678 E.g. , Covington v. Edwards, 264 F.2d 780 (4th Cir.), cert. denied , 361 U.S. 840 (1959); Holt v. Raleigh City Bd. of Educ., 265 F.2d 95 (4th Cir.), cert. denied , 361 U.S. 818 (1959); Dove v. Parham, 271 F.2d 132 (8th Cir. 1959). 1679 E.g. , McCoy v. Greensboro City Bd. of Educ., 283 F.2d 667 (4th Cir. 1960); Green v. School Board of Roanoke, 304 F.2d 118 (4th Cir. 1962); Gibson v. Board of Pub. Instruction of Dade County, 272 F.2d 763 (5th Cir. 1959); Northcross v. Board of Educ. of Memphis, 302 F.2d 818 (6th Cir. 1962), cert. denied , 370 U.S. 944 (1962).
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