Having explicated these basic notions and laid out my

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Unformatted text preview: Having explicated these basic notions and laid out my basal assumption, it is necessary to turn to the specific exemplification of the four modes of argument. To begin with an example M.A. GILBERT MULTI-MODAL ARGUMENTATION PHIL OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCES VOL 24 NR 2 .7 that is apparently in the logical mode, and, indeed, follows an identifiable logical pattern is presented. Example 2. Harry held a finger over his lips to signal for silence. He pointed to the door with his revolver. "He's in there," he said to Jane. "How can you be sure?" she queried. "He had to take the left or right door before, and they both lead into that room there." "O.K., then," Jane replied, "I'm ready when you are." The reasoning with which Harry reassures Jane is classically logical, and follows fairly closely the pattern known as V-Elimination or Disjunctive Syllogism in a natural deduction system. The pattern is as follows. Example 3. A V B, A ¡ C, B ¡ C ¡ C In [2], let A be, \he took the right door¡, B be, \he took the left door¡, and C be \he's in that room¡. Without too much difficulty we can see the connection between [2] and [3]. This is helpful in understanding the persuasive force of Harry's argument. Given, as we witnessed, that Jane accepted the three premisses, she was persuaded that their man had to be in the room. That, then, is the argument. But, in reality, a great deal more occurred in this argument than its formalization shows. Harry's relation to Jane, his apparent knowledge of their surroundings, her lack of objection or rejoinder, the participants¢ likely fear and/or tension in being in a dangerous situation all compose significant parts of the interaction. Still, the argument does lend itself to a linear, rational mode of analysis. A second, less formally exact, but still highly logical example is as follows. Example 4. Shana: Let's go over to the Bijou and see that new film. Zack: Nah, it's almost eight, and it's always packed there by now. This argument is also straightforwardly logical. Zack inductively draws on experience to conclude that their mutual objective, entrance to the show, would not be accomplished if Shana's suggestion were followed. Even had he stated his argument by simply making a face and pointing to the clock, the argument would still be in the same mode. In other words, being verbal or non-verbal is not in itself either a necessary or sufficient determination of mode. It is now necessary to present examples of arguments in the three alternative modes. These examples purport to show that there are arguments where the sources of information, i.e., warrant and backing, and/or mode of presentation are essentially non-logical, and, at the same time, are still clearly components of the argument. Before presenting them, however, it is important to reiterate that no claim is being made for exclusivity. It is unlikely that any argument is purely in one mode, and it is practically certain that any argument can be twisted out of its natural shape and into some arbitrary mode. This said, an example of an argument from...
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Having explicated these basic notions and laid out my basal...

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