Cloud computing refers to applications and services

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Cloud computing , refers to applications and services offered over the Internet (the “cloud”). Rather than storing a program on one’s computer, the program resides on a network server connected to the Internet. THE INTERNET THE INTERNET The Internet is nothing more than a network of computer networks. When you log on, your PC becomes part of – temporarily at least – a worldwide network that you can operate from your own computer. These computers are run by government agencies, businesses, universities, etc. You can connect to the Internet directly via phone line, cable TV, and optical fiber, or wirelessly via satellites. Just as there is no one "Phone Company," there is no one "Internet Company.” From ARPANET to Internet IM4-2
The Internet was a Cold War idea designed to keep vital computer networks linked with one another even if a nuclear attack cut one or more of the connections to those networks. A decentralized system of multiple interconnections between computer systems solved the problem so that every computer could talk to every other computer. Computers themselves figured out how to best send the packet. The Pentagon named this early networking system the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network, or ARPANET. The new network was used mostly by researchers to send e-mail and access remote databases. In the 1980s, the National Science Foundation decided to form a more widespread network to link its five expensive supercomputers (scattered all over the country) with other university and research facility computers. The NSF linked several regional networks together and essentially launched a civilian super network that became known as the Internet. The Internet remained an arcane and hard-to-use resource until the 1990s when three developments gave it almost overnight and universal appeal: the1990 birth of World Wide Web (WWW, or Web) and the hypertext navigation system, which allowed one electronic document to be linked with another the 1993 development of web browsers , which made Web navigation simple for PC users. Browsers retrieved data, determined what the data were, and configured the data for display; Internet Explorer is an example of a browser the development of the search engine , a utility that scans the Internet for terms selected by the user and displays the results; Google and Yahoo are examples of search engines By the mid 2000s, blogs, social networking sites, and video sharing sites made the Internet more popular than ever. As of 2010, about 80 percent of U.S. adults were Internet users. The average American was online more than 32 hours in a month and viewed more than 1,600 Web pages. STRUCTURE, FEATURES OF THE INTERNET People gain access to the Internet through an Internet service provider (ISP), a company that connects a subscriber to the Net for a fee. Once connected to the Internet, a user can make use of a variety of tools for information, entertainment and communication. Three of the more popular are e-mail, the World Wide Web, and specialized applications called “apps.”

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