broadly held grievances. However, approaches that ¶ look at levels of rainfall, rather than growth in ¶ rainfall from year to year, find tenuous, or in fact ¶ positive relationships, between rainfall abundance ¶ and the onset of conflict (Burke et al., 2009; Buhaug, ¶ 2010; Hendrix and Salehyan, 2010; Ciccone, ¶ forthcoming). Some case-based research, however, ¶ links drought to conflict – though mediated by the ¶ government’s response to the crisis. For example, ¶ during the Tuareg rebellion in northern Mali, ¶ drought – aggravated by the government’s ¶ embezzlement of drought relief supplies and food aid ¶ – was a significant source of grievance that ¶ motivated young men and women to take up arms ¶ (Benjaminsen, 2008). ¶ Recently, warmer temperatures have been linked to ¶ an increase in civil conflict, though this finding has ¶ been challenged (Burke et al., 2009; Buhaug, 2010). ¶ Civil war is also more likely in the aftermath of ¶ quick- onset natural disasters, such as earthquakes, ¶ major volcanic eruptions, floods, and cyclonic storms ¶ (Brancati, 2007; Nel and Righarts, 2008). The ¶ relationship between disaster and conflict is ¶ strongest in countries with high levels of inequality ¶ and slow economic growth; food insecurity and ¶ resource scarcity are among the more plausible ¶ explanations for this correlation. ¶ Interstate War ¶ The links between food insecurity and interstate war ¶ are less direct. While countries often go to war over ¶ territory, previous research has not focused directly ¶ on access to food or productive agricultural land as a ¶ major driver of conflict (Hensel, 2000). However, ¶ wars have been waged to reduce demographic ¶ pressures arising from the scarcity of arable land, the clearest examples being the move to acquire ¶ Lebensraum (“living space”) that motivated Nazi Germany’s aggression toward Poland and Eastern Europe (Hillgruber, 1981) and Japan’s invasion of China and Indochina (Natsios and Doley, 2009). ¶ Water, for drinking and for agriculture, is also a ¶ cause of conflict (Klare, 2002). Countries that share ¶ river basins are more likely to go to war than are ¶ other countries that border one another (Toset et al., ¶ 2000; Gleditsch et al., 2006). This relationship is ¶ strongest in countries with low levels of economic ¶ development. Institutions that manage conflicts over ¶ water and monitor and enforce agreements can ¶ significantly reduce the risk of war (Postel and Wolf, ¶ 2001).
1AC—Solvency Plan: The United States Federal Government should increase access and availability of year-round visas for lower-skilled workers. The plan stabilizes labor shortages and eliminates bureaucratic visa hurdles Anderson 15 . (Forbes Correspondent, More Work Visas, Less Illegal Immigration, ) So far in the presidential campaign we’ve heard a lot about building walls and pregnant Mexican women. What we haven’t heard is an answer to this question: Why do people enter America illegally rather than wait in line? The answer: There is no line for workers seeking lower-skilled jobs.
- Winter '20
- Economics, Labor shortage