G of most efficient approach among the koeri caste

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E.g. of most efficient approach among the Koeri casteVery minimal income for the peasants coerced into this economypium as a “Keystone” Commodity---one commodity that basically controlled everything else; central commodityReplaced cotton and textiles as the dominant industry1880 half million of Peasant household were involved in opium cultivation2ndmost important source of revenue for British India besides taxesBritish used opium initially as a way to pay for tea from China rather than using silverLacked much of what the Chinese wantedOpium used as a way to trade for Chinese tea to save silver supplyReverse flow of silver, China now using silver to trade for opiumAdvantage of British over China in tradeRevenue raised by British used for imperialist ventures---most came from opiumSettling of SingaporeInfrastructure in empireThe “yeast in the dough” of the British colonial economyMost profitable for the British, most destructive for the Indian peasantryCongo Congo Free StateLarge area of africa controlled by King Leopold IIHe said that hand mutilation was commonly practiced by Africans, but it was really his push to extract more ivory and rubbersBrutal extortion of labor led to deaths of over 4 million AfricanEdmund MorelInvestigated the transactions of Anglo-Belgian India Rubber CompanyFound documents of how the company gain massive profit in for such a low costAnglo-Belgian India Rubber CompanyBy the end of the 19th century, huge global demand for rubber arose with the advent of cars and belts for machineryThe company that earned profit from rubber from Congo at a quick paceEach stock cost 500 francs but then increased to 1500 francs per shareDoing so at the expense of African lives---use of military force to inspire terror and maintain control over African labor forcesMilitarization of the CongoArmed soldiers to keep the enterprises goingOverlook the brutal practice of hand mutilation and abuse towards the
Africanscutting of hand when africans did not meet the standards of extracting the rubber needed--many were womenTribal militiasExtraction of rubber through military forceCame from the background of cannibalismMilitary that rape, murder, etc. to their own contentLabor by the gun-soldier behind each laborerDehumanizing the recruits--would make child soldiers and cut them off from family and tribeGun only source of dignity and manhood=self worth

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