Streamflow during melt events in semiarid

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Streamflow during melt events in semiarid environments is composed mostly of old water: 68% in the case of the BEC in the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed. Timing of melt water in the stream is characterized by delivery of old water to the stream during the rising limb and into the peak of the hydrograph, then new water dominating the hydrograph during the recession. Early snowmelt simply infiltrates into the hill slope and moves down slope, which increases the hydraulic gradient and displaces old
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50 water into the stream. As melt continues and the hydrograph peaks, new water from early melt has moved through the hill slope and toward the stream. Late melt keeps the hill slope saturated and connected as well as maintains the hydraulic gradient.
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51 REFERENCES Bonell, M., Pearce, A. J., and Stewart, M. K., 1990, The identification of runoff- production mechanisms using evironmental isotopes in a tussock grassland catchment, Eastern Otago, New Zealand: Hydrlogical Process, v. 4, p. 15-34. Bottomley, D. J., Craig, D., and Johnston, L. M., 1986, Oxygen-18 studies of snowmelt runoff in a small Precambrian shield watershed: implications for stream water acidification in acid-sensitive terrain: Journal of Hydrology, v. 88, p. 213-234. Buttle, J. M., 1994, Isotope hydrograph separations and rapid delivery of pre-event water from drainage basins: Progress in Physical Geography, v. 18, p. 16-41. Dansgaard, W., 1964, Stable isotopes in precipitation: Tellus, v. 6, p. Dincer, T., Payne, B. R., Florkowski, T., Martinec, J., and Tongiorgi, E., 1970, Snowmelt runoff from measurements of tritium and oxygen-18: Water Resources Research, v. 6, p. 110-124. Dunne, T. and Black, R. D., 1970a, An experimental investigation of runoff production in permeable soils: Water Resources Research, v. 6, p. 478-490. Dunne, T. and Black, R. D., 1970b, Partial area contributions to storm runoff in a small New England watershed: Water Resources Research, v. 6, p. 1269-1311. Genereux, D., 1998, Quantifying uncertainty in tracer-based hydrograph separations: Water Resources Research, v. 34, p. 915-919. Hooper, R. P. and Shoemaker, C. A., 1986, A comparison of chemical and isotopic hydrograph separation: Water Resources Research, v. 22, p. 1444-1454. Huth, A. K., Leydecker, A., Sickman, J. O., and Bales, R. C., 2002, A two-component hydrograph separation for three high-elevation catchments in the Sierra Nevada, California: Hydrological Processes, v. 18, p. 1721-1733. Ingraham, N. L. and Taylor, B. E., 1986, Hydrogen Isotope Study of Large-Scale Meteoric Water Transport in Northern California and Nevada: Journal of Hydrology, v. 85, p. 183-197.
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52 Kennedy, V. C., Kendall, C., Zellweger, G. W., Wyerman, T. A., and Avanzino, R. J., 1986, Determination of the components of stormflow using water chemistry and environmental isotopes, Mattole River basin, California: Journal of Hydrology, v. 84, p. 107-140. La Sala, A. M., Jr., 1967, New Approaches to Water-Resource Investigations in Upstate New York: Groundwater, v. 5, p. 6-11.
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