➢ We were no longer the 13 colonies but the United States of America. Thomas Jefferson ➢ Was a member of the 2nd Continental Congress. The congress selected a committee known as the Committee of Five. ➢ Members... Thomas Jefferson Ben Franklin John Adams
Roger Sherman Robert Livingston ➢ Jefferson was selected to write the actual document. It took him 2 weeks! 1776 ➢ July 2- Congress voted (12 out of 13 colonies voted, New York did not) to declare Independence ➢ July 4th- The written document by T. Jefferson was approved after some minor changes made by Adams and Jefferson. It was then signed by only two delegates ➢ July 9th- New York approves the Declaration ➢ July 19th- Congress orders the Declaration of Independence be engrossed on parchment for signing. (Timothy Maddock) ➢ August 2nd- The declaration is signed by the 50 members of Congress present Washington Takes Command ➢ 16,000 troops outside of Boston ➢ General Gage of British has about 6,500 ➢ Washington’s army was made up of common men who enlisted for many different reasons ➢ General Howe replaces Gage and brings reinforcements, now at 8,000 Life Under Occupation ➢ Food shortages, bombardment, and British soldiers are all feared realities of living in Boston British Navy ➢ Strongest, most powerful Navy in the world ➢ Major mistake of British was the lack of using their powerful Navy. Advantages Brits had at beginning of war ➢ Strongest Navy in the world ➢ Experienced, well trained army ➢ Wealth ➢ Larger Population *9 mil. to 2.5 mil* Disadvantages of colonists at beginning of war ➢ Lacked a strong navy ➢ Lacked military experience ➢ Lacked military experience ➢ Weapons and ammo were in short supply ➢ Militia groups- volunteer soldiers (unstable!!) ➢ Population was divided in their effort. Not everyone was a Patriot. Two Reasons why some Americans remained Loyalists ➢ Tories: Colonists who fought with the British ➢ 1. Members of Anglican Church ➢ 2. Jobs ➢ 3. No established government ➢ Advantages of Patriots during war ➢ Fighting on their own ground
➢ Mercenaries (hired British soldiers- fighting for money). The Patriots were fighting for their freedom ➢ George Washington ➢ What is the Continental Army? A regular army, well trained soldiers who could fight everywhere. ➢ Depended on the states to recruit, or enlist soldiers. Soldiers signed up for 1 year. Later the gov. will enlist soldiers for 3 years. ➢ Other groups ➢ African Americans: Fought for their freedom in the militia. 5,000 fought. ➢ Women: Margaret Corbin, Deborah Sampson. Weapons ➢ Muzzle loading flintlock musket ➢ Smoothbore flintlock musket “Rules of War” ➢ To compensate for inaccurate shooting, men fired Rolleys. Men were formed into units of 2 or 3 lines (ranks) deep.
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