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40. In industry A, all displaced workers remain in the union sector waiting to be recalled. In industry B, all displaced workers seek work in the nonunion sector. All else constant, the:a. allocative efficiency loss is greater in industry A b. allocative efficiency loss is greater in industry B c. allocative efficiency loss is the same in A and B d. dynamic efficiency loss is greater in industry A 41. All of the following suggest that unions may improve productivity and efficiency except:42. Regarding unions and productivity, empirical results show that:43. Which of the following statements is supported by empirical evidence?44. Empirical estimates generally show that unions reduce:a. both firm profitability and economic efficiency b. firm profitability but improve economic efficiency c. firm profitability but there is no consensus regarding their effects on economic efficiency d. economic efficiency but there is no consensus regarding their effects on firm profitability 45. Evidence indicates that, on balance, union wage policies tend to: 46.There is a general consensus among economists that: