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Great migrationMovement of 6 million African-Americansout of the rural Southern United States to theurban Northeast, Midwest, and WestIncrease in the African American population of theNorth was a major effect of the Great Migration.C. Episodes of credit and market instability in the early 20th century, in particular the Great Depression, led to calls for a stronger financial regulatory system.Examples: Federal Reserve Act (1913), stock market crash (1929), bank “holiday” (1933), FDIC (1933), Securities Exchange Commission (1934)ExampleDefinition/DescriptionSignificance to the ThesisFederal Reserve ActCreated a central banking system, consistingof twelve regional banks governed by theFederal Reserve Board.Plays a vital role in the American economy today.Bank “Holiday”FDR issued a proclamation closing all American Banks for four days until Congress could meet in special session to consider banking reform legislation.The bank “holiday” was a result of the Great Depression.FDR argued that it would improve the banks which gave people relief.2
II.In the Progressive Era of the early 20th century, Progressives responded to political corruption, economic instability, and social concerns by calling for greater government action and other political and social measures. A.Some Progressive Erajournalists attacked what they saw as political corruption, social injustice, and economic inequality, while reformers, often from themiddle and upper classes and including many women, worked to effect social changes in cities and among immigrant populations.Examples: Muckrakers, settlement house movement, Jane Addams’ Hull House, Florence Kelley and the National Consumers League (1899), Ida Tarbell’s History of Standard Oil (1904), Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle (1906), Robert La Follette’s “Wisconsin Way”, National Child Labor Committee, LewisHine’s photographic investigation of child labor (1908-1917), progressive state laws such as the initiative, referendum, recall, minimum wage, child labor restriction, Lincoln Steffens’ Shame of the Cities(1904)ExampleDefinition/DescriptionSignificance to the ThesisMuckrakersThe term muckraker was used in the Progressive Era to characterize reform-minded American journalists who attacked established institutions and leaders as corrupt.Muckrakers exposed the political corruption as journalists and were often identified to be progressives.RecallThe people could possibly remove anincompetent politician from office by havinga second election.This meant that government positions were held by individuals who the public respected.B.On the national level, Progressives sought federal legislation that they believed would effectively regulate the economy, expand democracy, and generatemoral reform. Progressive amendments to the Constitution dealt with issues such as prohibition and woman suffrage.