Module_08_Lab_Worksheet_05212018.docx

Edema is always caused by something else such as a

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Edema is always caused by something else such as a different medical condition, a medication, pregnancy, or an allergic reaction. The symptoms of edema in the extremities include swelling of the tissue, stretched or tight skin and a larger than normal limb. Pulmonary edema is when excess fluid is retained in the air sacs of the lungs. Symptoms of pulmonary edema are difficulty breathing or heart and/or kidney failure (Lewis, 2016). 4. Why is it vital to maintain a proper electrolyte balance in the body? The body must maintain homeostasis of electrolyte balance, especiallysodium, potassium, and calcium, otherwise there could be seriously complications such as abnormal muscle contraction, abnormal nerve impulses and imbalances with water balance within cells. These complications can lead to abnormally swelling of cells, cardiac arrhythmias, and even death (Lewis, 2016). 5. Why is it important to maintain proper sodium levels in the body? How does aldosterone and angiotensin influence sodium levels in our body? To maintain sodium level in the body is to maintain blood volume, blood pressure, supports the work of your nerves and muscles, and regulates your body's fluid balance. Aldosterone increases the excretion of potassium and the reabsorption of sodium in the distal tubule. Aldosterone is released if blood levels of potassium increase, if blood levels of sodium severely decrease, or if blood pressure decreases. Its net effect is to conserve and increase water levels in the plasma by reducing the excretion of sodium, and thus water, from the kidneys. Angiotensin II causes vasoconstriction and an increase in systemic blood pressure. This action increases the glomerular filtration rate, resulting in more material filtered out of the glomerular capillaries and into Bowman’s capsule. Angiotensin II also signals an increase in the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex (Lewis, 2016).
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Part 01 Procedure: Electrolyte Balance 1. Working in groups of 2-4, each group will be tasked with presenting to the class on one or two electrolyte imbalance states. You will include the following information and content: Hyperkalemia/ Hypokalemia a. Causes Hyperkalemia is caused by AKF/ CKD, burns, crush injuries, severe infections, excessive use of K+ salts, shift of K+ such as during acidosis Hypokalemia can be caused by reduced dietary intake, poor absorption, increased GI losses from v/d, renal disease, use of diuretics or steroids (Sanders, 2007). b. Signs/Symptoms Hyperkalemia: Cardiac conduction disturbances, irritability, abdominal distention, N/D, oliguria, Weakness or paralysis Hypokalemia: malaise, skeletal muscle weakness, dysrhythmias, decreased reflexes, weak pulse, faint/ distant heart sounds, shallow respirations, Low BP, Anorexia, vomiting, gaseous distention, Excessive thirst (Sanders, 2007).
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