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Alexandre Lacassagne discovered firearms leave unique markings on bullets and thus the field of ballistics was born Ballistics experts can help identify potential suspects by comparing bullet and bullet casings with firearms. National Integrated Ballistics Information Network Ballistics involves more than determining whether a bullet was fired from a particular fire arm, where the offender and victim were and what they were doing at the time of the shooting Physics is used. A Science of all types of projectilesOther evidence Cloth and carpet fibers, tires and shoe prints and even the methods used by a killer to commit a murder or to access the victimmay help an investigator solve a murder. Violent Criminal Apprehension program (VICAP): is a national database that the FBI established to help investigators share information across jurisdictions in the case of a serial offender. Law enforcement agencies voluntarily submit information about unsolved cases to VICAP VICAP can allow FBI to determine if there are similarities in the way violent crimes are committed or witness descriptions ofpossible offenders It is the duty of the police to solve the murders and arrest the offenders as well as help the district attorney prosecute the accused. Other professionals who were involved in the case may play a role in convincing the judge or jury that the offender is guilty.Box 14.7 Lighting up the crime with CLUCriminalistics Light Imaging Unit (CLU): allows investigators to detect minuscule evidence not visible to the naked eye or even with the blue light. Helpful in detecting fingerprints, blood, semen, and other fluids CLU can be used in regular lighting Do the race and class of the victim Matter in homicide clearance? Jamice Puckett and Richard Lundman found that a victims race and social class, and sex did not make a difference in homicide clearance However homicides in African American communities were less likely to be solvedThey argued this was because African American communities lack cooperationA study by Litwin found that Latino victims were less likely than those with white victims to be cleared by arrest. Box 14.8 Attention to Detail Experience Are invaluable Burked:Slang term that refers to suffocating someone by covering their nose and mouth and applying pressure to the chest until the victim suffocates Interviewing Witnesses The murderer detective needs to inquire about who, what, when, where, why and how when questioning witnesses. (They need to go beyond this to find out any details that the witness may consider important)Homicide detectives are required, encouraged to used standardized interview guides.