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If a single receptor type is responsible for regulating several physiologic processes, then drugs that interact with that receptor will also influence several processes. think also agonists and partial and antagonistOpioid receptors modulate perception of pain as well help regulate other processes including respiration and motility of the boweloMorphine can also produce respiratory depression and constipation20. Differentiate drugs that are Agonists: omolecules that activate receptors and mimic the body’s own regulatory moleculesoneurotransmitters, hormones etc…othey can make a process go faster or slowerpartial agonists: omimic the actions of endogenous regulatory molecules but produce responses that intermediate intensityothe maximal effect that a partial agonist can produce is less than that of afull agonist.
antagonists: oblock the actions of endogenous regulatorsoproduce effects by preventing receptor activation by endogenous regulatory molecules and drugsono effect by themselves on receptors but cause pharmacologic effects by preventing the activation of receptors by agonists.oaffinity for a receptor but with no intrinsic activity. Therefore affinity and intrinsic activity are independent of each other (Modified Occupancy Theory). Intrinsic activity is the ability of a drug to activate the receptor following binding. Agonist/antagonist: oone drug that is agonist to some receptors and an antagonist to others. 21. Define the ED 50 and the LD 50Effective dose in 50% of the populationLD50 is lethal dose in 50% of the population. 22. Discuss the concept of a drug’s therapeutic index and its application and benefits to clinical practice, such as the relationships between the doses of a drug and whether its effects are sub-therapeutic (inadequate), therapeutic (desired response), or toxic (adverse effects related to excessive dosage). Measure of a drug’s safety.Measure of the ratio of LD50 (lethal dose in 50% of population) to ED50. LD50/ED50 A high therapeutic index (TI) is safe. A narrow range is not safe. A TI of 100 is safer than that of 4. 23. Discuss the consequences of drug-drug interactions, the basic mechanisms of drug-drug interactions, and the critical steps in minimizing adverse drug-drug interactions. May occur whenever a patient takes more than one drugSome interactions are intended/desired or unintended/undesiredSometimes when combined it can be life threatening, like bleedingWhen to take the medication, with food or empty stomach1hr before or 2 hours after the meal for an empty stomachWhat the medications and what the indications areMedications can interact together and so we need to know what were taken in case of adverse medication interaction. It can increase effect, decrease it or unknown effect.