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Damages cells release histamines which increase

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Damages cells release histamines, which increase vasodilation. - Heat, swelling pain Fever Second Line of Defense Images: The sick girl , Michael Ancher Body temp above normal range of 36.5–37.5 °C (98–100 °F). Results when chemicals called ________ trigger the hypothalamus to increase body’s core temperature. Various types of pyrogens Bacterial toxins Cytoplasm of bacteria released by lysis Antibody-antigen complexes Interleukin-I (IL-1 a cytokine) Benefits Speed of immune system reaction increased Inhibits growth of some temp sensitive microorganisms From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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The body’s ability to recognize and defend itself against distinct invaders. Is a “smart” system. Also called specific and adaptive immunity. “Memory” allows it to respond rapidly to additional encounters with a pathogen. - If nonspecific immune system has warriors , then acquired immunity has more sophisticated special agents and assassins . Two types of specific immunity: Naturally acquired = immune response against antigens encountered in daily life. Artificially acquired = response to antigens introduced via vaccine. Q: How does the body recognize invaders? _______ Line of Defense - ___________ Third Line of Defense Images: Child getting immunized, PHIL #9423 From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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__________ Body does not direct immune response against whole bacteria, fungi, protozoa or viruses. Foreign molecules trigger a specific immune response. Include components of bacterial cell walls , capsules, pili, and flagella, as well as proteins of viruses , fungi and protozoa. Food and dust can also contain antigenic particles. Enter the body by various methods: Through breaks in skin & mucous membranes Direct injection, as with a bite or needle Through organ transplants and skin grafts Hi! I’m Tami’s Cell Hi! I’m Tami’s Cell Can I see your I.D.? Images: Blood cells , National Cancer Institute Third Line of Defense From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Antigens Are Like Name Tags Antigenic particles are often associated with a specific characteristic of an organism, so are detected as foreign when they get inside another organism that doesn’t have that characteristic.
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_________ Also called immunoglobulins (Ig). Protein aceous molecules that bind ________ at the antigen- binding site. Considered part of the humoral immune response since bodily fluids such as lymph and blood were once called humors. Images: Antibody , Fvasconcellos Third Line of Defense From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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How Antibodies Work Some act as opsonins , ________ to identify antigens for phagocytes and stimulate phagoctosis.
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