Palm kernel oil 02 4 48 16 8 3 15 2 peanut oil 4 11 2

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Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry
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Chapter 8 / Exercise 8-45
Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry
Brown
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Palm Kernel Oil 0.2 4 48 16 8 3 15 2 - Peanut Oil 4 - - - 11 2 48 32 - Safflower Oil 10.1 - - - 7 2 13 78 - Sesame Oil 6.6 - - - 9 4 41 45 - Shea nut 1.1 - 1 - 4 39 44 5 - Soybean Oil 5.7 - - - 11 4 24 54 7 Sunflower Oil 7.3 - - - 7 5 19 68 1 Walnut Oil 5.3 - - - 11 5 28 51 5 * Notes: (1)Percentages may not add to 100% due to either rounding or some constituents not being listed. (2)C10:0indicates that the fatty acid consists of an 10-carbon chain and 0 double bonds
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Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
Chapter 8 / Exercise 8-45
Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry
Brown
Expert Verified
CHM113_Hydrolysis (Saponification) Rx_Making Soap 4 Lab Experiment I.Soap preparation:You will prepare soap via basic (alkaline) hydrolysis of lard (saponification reaction).When lard is reacted with sodium hydroxide the resultant soap” is actually a mixture of salts (soaps): sodium oleate (highest %), sodium palmitate, sodium stearate, sodium linoleate (linoleic acid sodium salt), etc. Ethanol is added to the reaction to facilitate the mixing of the fat (melted lard) and the aqueous sodium hydroxide solution while the reaction mixture is refluxed. After refluxing, the reaction mixture is added to a saturated sodium chloride solution in order to precipitate the soap. The saturated sodium chloride solution increases the ionic strength of the aqueous layer and the soap will separate (will “coagulate”). The soap is then filtered and washed to obtain the final product. II.Soap properties:Some properties of the prepared soap will be tested and compared to the same properties of commercial soaps/detergents.Reagents and Materials Lard Sodium hydroxide, pellets Ethanol Sodium chloride, saturated solution Calcium chloride, anhydrous Lab detergent (Alconox) Hand soap (SoftSoap) Vials and/or test tubes Tea impregnated paper towel (our “dirty” paper towel)Safety: Sodium hydroxide is CAUSTIC handle with care!!! Wear gloves and handle all reagents under the hood. Procedure I. Soap Preparation 1.Add 20 ml distilled water to a 125 ml Erlenmeyer flask 2.Weigh 5.0 g NaOH pellets (in the weighting dish provided) and carefully add it to the flask Notes: (1) avoid splashing!; (2) flask will become hot, handle with care). Swirl until all solid dissolves. Rinse the weighting dish with water and set aside (it will be used later). 3.Weigh 5.0 g lard and add it to the NaOH solution. Once all lard melts transfer this mixture (use a funnel if needed) into the 100 ml RB flask from glass kit. Rinse the Erlenmeyer flask with 20 ml Ethanol (2 washes with ~10 ml each) and transfer to the RB flask. Add a couple boiling chips and gently mix. 4.Clamp the RB flask to a ring stand and set up the reflux apparatus (use the small heating mantle).
CHM113_Hydrolysis (Saponification) Rx_Making Soap 5 5.Turn water ON. Turn the heating mantle ON (~ 6) to bring the mixture to gentleboiling; adjust the heat as needed to achieve the correct heating rate (refluxing rate ~ 2-3 drops/s)6.Reflux for 30 min (from the time you first observe drops of liquid returning from the tip of the condenser into the RB flask) 7.While waiting for the completion of the saponification reaction, use ice bath (ice + water + NaCl solid) to chill the following solutions to ~ 00C: a.100 ml saturated sodium chloride solution (use a 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask for it) b.a wash solution prepared by mixing 100 ml saturated sodium chloride solution and 50 ml distilled water (again, use a 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask) 8.Once the Rx mixture is done refluxing, pour it over the ice-cold (~ 00C) saturated sodium

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