A need for special education services o The student shows specific and severe

A need for special education services o the student

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A need for special education services o The student shows specific and severe learning problems despite normal educational efforts Responsiveness to intervention A local education agency may use a process that determines if the child responds to scientific, research-based intervention as a part of the evaluation procedures
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o About 4% of the total school-age population recent declines in prevalence could be due to multi-tiered prevention services or partly the result of category shifting Causes Brain Damage or dysfunction o In most cases there is no evidence of brain damage o Assuming a child’s learning problems are caused by a dysfunctioning brain can serve as a built-in excuse for ineffective instruction Heredity o There is growing evidence that genetics may account for at least some family linkage with dyslexia Biochemical imbalance o Most professionals give little credence to biochemical imbalance as a cause Environmental factors o Impoverished living conditi ons early in a child’s life and poor instruction probably contribute to achievement deficits o Many students’ learning problems can be remediated by direct, intensive and systematic instruction Assessment ---Five forms of assessment are frequently used: Standardized tests (aptitude and achievement) o Used to measure achievement and IQ Criterion-referenced tests (skills testing) o Student’s score compared to a mastery criterion to identify specific skills in need of instruction Informal reading inventories (placement) o Used to determine student’s reading level Curriculum-based measurement (progress and decisions) o Frequent assessment of a student’s progress in learning the objections of the curriculum Direct daily measurement (progress and decisions)
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