Improved ability to reflect on their own mental life

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improved ability to reflect on their own mental life is another reason that their thinking and problem-solving advance Knowledge of Cognitive Capacities Older children regard it as an active, constructive agent that selects and transforms information (not a passive container of information) For example, know that doing well on a task depends on focusing attention Become increasingly aware of effective memory strategies, why they work and the relationships between mental activities
Understand everyone has a different point of view on things, knowledge is not only extended by directly observing, or talking to others, but also making mental inferences This grasp of inference enables knowledge of false belief to expand By age 6 or 7 realize second-order beliefs can be wrong; however, assists them in understanding others’ perspectives Besides complex thinking and language, experiences can foster a child’s ability to be more reflective, process-oriented view of the mind Knowledge of strategies Conscious of mental strategies 3 rd and 5 th grade; children develop a much better appreciation of how and why strategies 5 th graders are better a discriminating good from bad reasoning (weighing of possibilities and gathering evidence) By end of middle childhood, children consider how interactions among variables (age effective strategies, and difficulty of the tasks) affect cognitive performance Metacognition broadens into a more complex theory o Cognitive Self-Regulation Difficulty with cognitive self-regulation, the process of continuously monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsuccessful efforts Sometimes do not always engage in these kinds of activities, ex: rereading a paragraph to ensure understanding and adding information she missed When children apply a strategy consistently, their knowledge of strategies strengthens, resulting in a bidirectional relationship between metacognition and strategic processing that enhances self-regulation Academic success depends on self-regulation; if a student encounters a mistake, the better student will take steps to address it (passive students achieve poorly) Parents and teachers can foster self-regulation Those with this skill develop a sense of academic self-efficacy (confidence in their own ability) o Applications of Information Processing to Academic Learning Reading Skill must be done automatically: letters, letter combinations, translate to speech sounds, recognize common words, hold text in working memory, interpret meaning, combine with meaning of past parts of the text, have a whole. Phonological awareness —the ability to reflect on and manipulate the sound structure of spoken language—continues to facilitate their progress PAST DEBATE:
Whole-language approach argued that from the beginning, children should be exposed to text in its complete form—stories, poems, letters, posters, and lists—so that they can appreciate the communicative function of written language.

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