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improved ability to reflect on their own mental life is another reason that their thinking and problem-solving advanceKnowledge of Cognitive CapacitiesOlder children regard it as an active, constructive agent that selects and transforms information (not a passive container of information)For example, know that doing well on a task depends on focusing attentionBecome increasingly aware of effective memory strategies, why they work and the relationships between mental activities
Understand everyone has a different point of view on things, knowledge is not only extended by directly observing, or talking to others, but also making mental inferencesThis grasp of inference enables knowledge of false belief to expandBy age 6 or 7 realize second-order beliefs can be wrong; however,assists them in understanding others’ perspectivesBesides complex thinking and language, experiences can foster a child’s ability to be more reflective, process-oriented view of the mindKnowledge of strategiesConscious of mental strategies3rdand 5thgrade; children develop a much better appreciation of how and why strategies5thgraders are better a discriminating good from bad reasoning (weighing of possibilities and gathering evidence)By end of middle childhood, children consider how interactions among variables (age effective strategies, and difficulty of the tasks) affect cognitive performanceMetacognition broadens into a more complex theoryoCognitive Self-RegulationDifficulty with cognitive self-regulation,the process of continuously monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsuccessful effortsSometimes do not always engage in these kinds of activities, ex: rereading a paragraph to ensure understanding and adding information she missedWhen children apply a strategy consistently, their knowledge of strategies strengthens, resulting in a bidirectional relationship between metacognition and strategic processing that enhances self-regulationAcademic success depends on self-regulation; if a student encounters a mistake, the better student will take steps to address it (passive students achieve poorly)Parents and teachers can foster self-regulationThose with this skill develop a sense of academic self-efficacy (confidence in their own ability)oApplications of Information Processing to Academic LearningReadingSkill must be done automatically: letters, letter combinations, translate to speech sounds, recognize common words, hold text inworking memory, interpret meaning, combine with meaning of pastparts of the text, have a whole.Phonological awareness—the ability to reflect on and manipulate the sound structure of spoken language—continues to facilitate their progressPAST DEBATE:
Whole-language approachargued that from the beginning, children should be exposed to text in its complete form—stories, poems, letters, posters, and lists—so that they can appreciate the communicative function of written language.