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The examples of nevraand other conditions associated with trauma, ofmenopause, and of HIV, each in their own way make clear that the challenge is todislodge the familiar assumptions of universality made in Europe and NorthAmerica about health, illness, disease, and life-cycle transitions. What appear tobe the exotic anomalies associated with other parts of the world are made intelli-gible through anthropological research. At the same time the contribution of so-cial inequities, politics, and violence to the incidence of so much disease and dis-tress is brought into focus. Furthermore, the way in which biology, society, andcultural values are coproduced—how they are inseparable from one another andmutually malleable—is made abundantly clear.s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u rt h e r r e a d i n gHogle, Linda. 1999. Recovering the Nation’s Body: Cultural Memory, Medicine, and the Politicsof Redemption.New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. [An ethnography basedin Germany about the disputes and practices associated with the procurement of bodytissues and organs for therapeutic and scientific purposes.]Lindenbaum, Shirley, and Margaret Lock, eds. 1993. Knowledge, Power, and Practice: TheAnthropology of Medicine and Everyday Life. Berkeley: University of California Press.[This collection of essays covers a wide range of topics in medical anthropology, withemphasis on the relationship of power embedded in medical knowledge and practice.]Lock, Margaret. 1990. “On Being Ethnic: The Politics of Identity Breaking and Making,or Nevra on Sunday.” Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry14: 237–52. [A discussion of thebody as a medium for the expression of social and political inequalities.]———. 1993. Encounters with Aging: Mythologies of Menopause in Japan and North America.Berkeley: University of California Press. [A comprehensive ethnography of the politicsm e d i c a l k n o w l e d g e a n d b o d y p o l i t i c s/207
of female aging that also shows how the cultural construction, medicalization, and sub-jective experience of menopause differs in Japan and North America.]———. 2001. Twice Dead: Organ Transplants and the Reinvention of Death.Berkeley: Uni-versity of California Press. [An examination of the creation of the concept of brain-death and the contradictions and anxieties associated with the procurement of organsfrom brain-dead bodies in North America and Japan.]Nguyen, Vinh-Kim. 2001. “Epidemics, Interzones, and Biosocial Changes.” In EntangledHistories,ed. Wolf Lepenies. London: St. Martin’s Press. [A discussion of globalizationand the interrelationship of politics, culture, and biology in the HIV/AIDS epidemicin West Africa.]Scheper-Hughes, Nancy. 1992. Death without Weeping: The Violence of Everyday Life inBrazil.Berkeley: University of California Press. [An exhaustive exploration of the ex-ploited existence of slum dwellers in northeast Brazil and its effect on affiliation,health, and physical survival.]Young, Allan. 1995. The Harmony Of Illusions: Inventing Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.