It fell into 12 bar stanzas with written harmonic

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She changed blues to become more codified. It fell into 12 bar stanzas with written harmonic  progressions.  W.C. Handy  (1873-1958) encountered blues in a railroad station hearing the same lines be repeated. He  studied the music and turned it into his 9 piece dance ensemble.  Known as “father of blues” Played Memphis blues (1912) Jazz soon became popular as people threw money at the dancers and musicians for their performance Primitive music is what people wanted.  Coins continued to pay for the performances in the 1910s and 1920s.  In 1920, Perry Bradford, an African American songwriter convinced Okeh Records to try Mamie Smith Recording companies realized blacks represented a serious market “race records” – black music for black people  blacks were payed a modest recording fee but often denied a copyright royalty and pressured to only  record blues.  Bessie Smith: (1894 – 1937) Most popular blues diva in the era “empress of blues” Powerful voice that she learned to project  Career lasted 14 years and made 200 records – setting standard Born in Tennessee, she became a favorite. Began at Okeh Records in 1923 Her career peeked in 1929 – she made her film appearance “St Louis Blues”.  Then the Great Depression curtailed her earnings She then wrote in a more pop song style in the 1930s
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Died of a car accident (white hospital and refused admission) “reckless blues” – accompanied by Armstrong. They both do a call and response technique.  Popular Music: Minstrelsy and Dance Many black musicians moved to the audience of white Americans.  The deep imbalance of race made it very difficult for blacks to succeed.  Whites studied their black counterparts and created Minstrelsy – most popular influential form of  entertainment The minstrel show had become the most beloved theatrical production.  However it invented new lasting stereotypes  Some believe it had a positive effect of presenting blacks as humans and  amusing. But the negatives outweighed any positives (thieves, childish) Blacks began to perform as well creating competing tours of racially segregated groups. White audiences  began favoring black performers.  It trained white audiences to expect all black entertainers, to enact characteristics of the performing fool People automatically played in a box Music was one of the few skilled labor professions available to blacks Dance was exclusive at fancy balls.  Dance then became physical exercise as well as personal expression African American dance became known Europe created the “chef club” – part talent agency, part orchestra. They  reaffirmed the black musicians place at the center of the dance world.  Art Music: Brass bands and Ragtime African Americans were drawn to the mysteries of power – aka literacy. Music became a formal part of 
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  • Fall '11
  • Lornell
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