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proximity- things that are near to each other are grouped together ○closure- filling in missing pieces to create a whole ○common fate- similar units that move together are seen as one whole unit ○familiarity- attributing random shapes to a familiar or meaningful image ○figure-ground- discerning between the figure in the forefront and the ground in the back ●Influences on Perception ○attention- individual differences in perception of the same object ■inattentional blindness- when someone fails to recognize an unexpected stimulus that is in plain sight. Is is the idea that when you don’t pay attention to a stimulus, you don’t see it. ■change blindness- the idea that we don’t notice changing stimuli in our environment when we aren’t paying attention to it Hearing ●Environmental stimulus- sound waves ●Attended stimulus (the part of the stimuli we’re paying attention to) ●Stimulus on the receptors ●Transduction- sensory neurons convert sensory stimulation into neural impulses ○order that sound travels through the ear: tympanic membrane (eardrum), ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes), cochlea, cochlear nerve
●Processing (knowledge)- feature detectors- neurons that fire depending on small, miniscule details about the stimulus ●Perception (knowledge)- information a person brings to a situation; plays an important role in perception and recognition ●Recognition ●Action ●Entire process repeats Definition of sound ●Sound (physically)- sound is pressure changes in the air that produce vibrations ●Sound (perceptually)- sound is the experience we have when we hear ●Sound waves ○physical- frequency (hertz; rate at which the wave repeats) and amplitude (decibel; intensity) ○perceptual- range of hearing; frequency (pitch) and amplitude (loudness) ■low frequency- low pitch ■high frequency- high pitch ■low amplitude- soft ■high amplitude- loud
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY- Chapter 14 Social Perception ●Attribution-help understand other’s behavior and predict future behaviors, and then control the situation if it occurs again ○types of attribution- situational vs. dispositional ■situational- external circumstances ■dispositional- person’s own character ○attributional biases ■Fundamental Attribution Error- when dispositional attribution is emphasized over situational attribution when explaining a person’s behavior ■Self-serving Bias- the tendency to take credit for successes, and blame external factors on failures ●Attitudes ○Three components of an attitude ■cognitive (thoughts and beliefs about the object), emotional (feelings toward object), behavioral (predisposition to act toward object) ■The A-B Problem- behavior cannot always be predicted based on attitudes ○forming attitudes ■learning principles ●modeling and other forms of social learning- picked up from parents and role models ●classical and operant conditioning- classical (objects or ideas paired with