proximity things that are near to each other are grouped together closure

Proximity things that are near to each other are

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proximity- things that are near to each other are grouped together closure- filling in missing pieces to create a whole common fate- similar units that move together are seen as one whole unit familiarity- attributing random shapes to a familiar or meaningful image figure-ground- discerning between the figure in the forefront and the ground in the back Influences on Perception attention- individual differences in perception of the same object inattentional blindness- when someone fails to recognize an unexpected stimulus that is in plain sight. Is is the idea that when you don’t pay attention to a stimulus, you don’t see it. change blindness- the idea that we don’t notice changing stimuli in our environment when we aren’t paying attention to it Hearing Environmental stimulus- sound waves Attended stimulus (the part of the stimuli we’re paying attention to) Stimulus on the receptors Transduction- sensory neurons convert sensory stimulation into neural impulses order that sound travels through the ear: tympanic membrane (eardrum), ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes), cochlea, cochlear nerve
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Processing (knowledge)- feature detectors- neurons that fire depending on small, miniscule details about the stimulus Perception (knowledge)- information a person brings to a situation; plays an important role in perception and recognition Recognition Action Entire process repeats Definition of sound Sound (physically)- sound is pressure changes in the air that produce vibrations Sound (perceptually)- sound is the experience we have when we hear Sound waves physical- frequency (hertz; rate at which the wave repeats) and amplitude (decibel; intensity) perceptual- range of hearing; frequency (pitch) and amplitude (loudness) low frequency- low pitch high frequency- high pitch low amplitude- soft high amplitude- loud
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SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY- Chapter 14 Social Perception Attribution-help understand other’s behavior and predict future behaviors, and then control the situation if it occurs again types of attribution- situational vs. dispositional situational- external circumstances dispositional- person’s own character attributional biases Fundamental Attribution Error- when dispositional attribution is emphasized over situational attribution when explaining a person’s behavior Self-serving Bias- the tendency to take credit for successes, and blame external factors on failures Attitudes Three components of an attitude cognitive (thoughts and beliefs about the object), emotional (feelings toward object), behavioral (predisposition to act toward object) The A-B Problem- b ehavior cannot always be predicted based on a ttitudes forming attitudes learning principles modeling and other forms of social learning- picked up from parents and role models classical and operant conditioning- classical (objects or ideas paired with
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