DSST Fundamentals of counseling study sheet

Individual centered society exists to maximize

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"individual" centered: society exists to maximize individual's potential o individual freedom, autonomy o individualism Obtain social control thru love and affection Informal interpersonal relationships Hispanic Family as focus, social-self Interdependence Hierarchical relationship Extended family External frame of reference o obedience to family o personal needs are secondary to family need Focus on what kind of person you are rather than status Work for present needs Religion plays important role Formal interpersonal relationships An advocate is someone who speaks on behalf of another person, especially in a legal context. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) prohibits discrimination and ensures equal opportunity and access for persons with disabilities.
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Therapists used silence primarily to facilitate reflection, encourage responsibility, facilitate expression of feelings, not interrupt session flow, and convey empathy. During silence, therapists observed the client, thought about the therapy, and conveyed interest. In general, therapists indicated that they would use silence with clients who were actively problem solving, but they would not use silence with very disturbed clients. Therapists learned about using silence mostly through clinical experience. Read ACA Ethical codes. Particularly H2b & c Piaget’s Cognitive Stages (Developmental Counseling version) A client who is in a sensorimotor stage of cognitive development will express his or her emotions through behavioral and physical means. A client in the concrete stage of cognitive development will be able to name feelings but be unable to reflect on those feelings. A client in the Formal stage of cognitive development will be able to talk abstractly about their feelings and recognize patterns. A client in the dialectic stage is able to integrate all their personal reflections and multiple perspectives to devise a plan that will address any dysfunctional thoughts, feelings, or behaviors.
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