8.Describe the pressures that affect glomerular filtration, and describe the effects of drinking too much beer on the urinary system. The pressure that affect glomerular filtration are three in number and they are:1.Glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure (GBHP), which is the blood pressure in glomerular capillaries. GBHP is about 55mmHg. It promotes filtration by forcing water and solutes in blood plasma through the filtration membrane 2.Capsular hydrostatic pressure (CHP), which is the hydrostatic pressure, exerted against the filtration membrane by fluid already in the capsular space and renal tubule. It opposes filtration and represents a back pressure of about 15mmHg.3.Blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP), which is due to the presence of proteins such as albumin, globulins and fibrinogen in blood plasma. It also opposes filtration. The average BCOP in glomerular capillaries is about 30mmHg. oThese three pressures determine net filtration pressure (NFP), which is the total pressure that promotes filtration. It can be written as follows:oNFP=GBHP-CHP-BCOPoNFP=(55-15-30)mmHgo=10mmHgoso, a pressure of 10mmHg causes normal amount of plasma to filter from the glomerulus into the capsular space.The effects of drinking too much beer on the urinary system includes: oInterference of electrolyte and acid balance in the body. Alcoholics may experience low blood concentration of key electrolytes as well as potentially severe alterations in the body, thus there is an increase in the concentration of electrolytes in blood serum (hyponatremia which is low sodium level caused by intake of solute free liquid beer), and this can lead to dehydration. Alcohol can affect the regulation of acidity thus affecting thebody’s metabolic balance. oImpairment in the ability to regulate the volume and composition of urine, as alcohol is a diuretic thus can compromise kidney functions. This is due to the inhibition of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin, which normally promotes the formation of, concentrated urine by inducing the kidney to conserve fluids. In the absence of ADH, segments of the kidney’s tubule system become impermeable to water thus preventing it from being reabsorbed into the body. Under these conditions, the urine formed is diluted and electrolyte concentration in the blood rises simultaneously. Increased serum electrolyte concentration normally activates secretions of ADH so that fluid balance can be resorted; a rising blood alcohol level disrupts this regulatory response by suppressing ADH secretion in the blood. Alcohol can disrupt the hormonal mechanisms that govern Assignment 2 :: Biology 235: Human Anatomy and Physiology 12
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