4 stages that culminate in a rape (Malamuth Model)
Motivation – willingness to have sex by any means, prove self (masculinity, heterosexuality), feel powerless in other elements of their lives and so they dominate females, misogyny, sex/aggression paraphilia. Overcome internal inhibitors – through process of justifications through rape myths, “I’m a man, this is what I’m supposed to do” Overcome external inhibitions – they tend to surround themselves with others who support their behavior, male dominance structures (military, sports, celebrities), social boundaries (patriarchy, marriage). “Boys will be boys”. Select victims: perceiving females as inferior, prefer female dependency, vulnerability through financial and emotional, select desirable feminine traits e.g. passivity, compliance. Prefer small physical size, lack physical strength, skill. o Social learning model also learning of sexual scripts. Look at environment and imitate what we see. Rape culture: society normalizes sexual violence and blames victims of sexual violence. Components that go in include victim blaming, slut shaming, sexual objectification, trivializing rape, denying that rape is widespread, and refusing to acknowledge the harm caused by sexual violence. Gender role dysfunction – rape is a form of gender role dysfunction. Harmful ideas males develop about what it means to be a man vs. a woman. Rape myths (3 categories) – female wanting it to happen; female bringing it on herself via clothing, drinking, dancing; female exaggerating the even tor making up the event. Perceptions of female and male role: social expectations cause rape; what it means about being a man vs. being a woman. Sexual scripts that support rape culture Rape is legitimized – rite of passage (girl as marriageable, boy proves manhood); rape as sanctioned punishment Low rape cultures value nurturance and cooperation in males, allow M and F to share power, promote nonviolent conflict resolution, female spirituality. Sexual Assault on College Campuses: 2011 Obama issues statement “Dear Colleague letter. Urged colleges to apply a “preponderance of evidence…” standard when adjudicating sexual assault cases. There should be easier victims of sexual assault to be able to prosecute their accusers in court. Realization that it was really difficult for women to file sexual assault cases. If you aren’t going after perpetrators, you will be denied funding. o Title IX: Over 350 colleges are currently under investigation by the U.S. Department for Title IX violations in their handling of student sexual assault as of July 2015. Watch trailer of hunting ground. Professors from Harvard that they felt the perpetrators were not given rights – problem lay in the fact that these problems were from “heresy”; how do you tease apart testimonies from people who has a hard time remembering.
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