Having persian and hellenistic cultures mix via

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having Persian and Hellenistic cultures mix via temples, learning the language, and taking on a Persian wife, along with marrying numerous generals off to Persian women. -Went to Egypt, and privately met with an oracle who proclaimed he was a God -Wanted to expand into India, but troops were exhausted and wanted to go home
-Utilized military technology such as the Companion Cavalry, Sarissas (20ft long spears), and siege weaponry to win battles Fall: -Upon Alexander’s death, he had instructed his generals to choose the mightiest of the bunch and that person would lead. -Generals started civil war empire fractured shortly after Alexander’s death. Rome: SPQR- Senatus Populus Que Romana Early Years: -Founded in 751 BCE by Romulus (who allegedly kills his brother, Remus) -No women, so Romulus and everyone goes to nearby villages to steal women -By 400 BCE, Romans were just one of the many groups on the Italian peninsula and were expanding slowly as to not overexert themselves -Held the ideals of piety, respect for authority, and political stability in high regard -Great differences between Plebeians and Patricians led to the struggle of the orders -Plebeians walked out of the city, and, 100 years later, were given consulship and greater rights -Struggle of the orders was completely non-violent, instance of traditional settlement of Roman disagreements Social Pyramid: Slaves→ Plebeians→ Patricians Government: Consuls - always had 2 consuls, who needed approval from the Senate for all decisions, they were the monarchical branch of the Roman republic Senate - Aristocratic branch of the Roman government Assembly- the democratic branch of the Roman government -All decisions could be vetoed by a Tribune -The goal was to prevent one person from having too much power
Punic Wars: Carthage: -A Phoenician settlement founded in 814 BCE, had the strongest navy in the region “No man could wash his hand in the salt water without the permission of Carthage (held great control over their territories) First Punic War: 264-241 BCE -Roman strategy was to use a corvus (wooden appendage that created a bridge between two ships, turning a naval battle into a land battle -Treaty of Lutatius in 241 BCE: -Carthage evacuates Sicily -Carthage pays 3,000 pounds of Silver Hannibal Barca, son of Hamilcar Barca, swears that he will never be a friend to Rome and wishes to destroy Rome from a young age Second Punic War: 218-201 BCE -Hannibal crushes a Roman force of 60,000 at the battle of Cannae, traveling through the alps on elephants to reach Italy, and it seems like the end of Rome -Scipio Africanus defeats the Carthaginians at the battle of Zama, forcing them to cede lands in Iberia, their worships, and have them pay an indemnity -Hannibal commits suicide several years later -Cato the Elder, a Roman senator, preaches after every speech, that Carthage must be destroyed Third Punic War : 149-146 BCE -Rome feared Carthage was again becoming a threat -Rome attacked Carthage and obliterated the threat for good -With Carthage gone, Rome grows wealthy, causing greater tension in control of the government -Growing social discontent

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