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[Group 11] Japan's overcoming severe pollution in the period of 1950s-1970s and experiences for V

The cycle particularly benefited large enterprises in

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The cycle particularly benefited large enterprises in heavy industries such as metal, chemicals, energy and machinery. Resources in shortage were prioritized to be allocated to industries with a lower capital cost. In additions, although lower prices of capital goods was a result of the massive investment in machinery industries partly facilitated investments, small businesses and consumer-goods and services sectors incurred from shortages in investment funds. This scheme was often criticized as having overly-favored key industries and big businesses. However, this strategy was generally accepted by most Japanese as a ‘trickle-down approach’ to raise incomes and living standards in Japan. In forming this consensus, government’s medium-term economic plans, particularly the National Income Doubling Plan of 1960, contributed significantly. This approach also created the problems associated with ‘dual structure’, although this was basically a great success. A world of difference in productivity, wages and in other working conditions emerged between the favored industries and those that were not. There was a big gap in competitiveness between heavy industries and big businesses on one hand, and consumer-goods and service-related sectors on the other hand. There are 2 reasons for poor performance in the latter: a shortage of investments and a lack of market competition. Up until now, this continues to be a major challenge to the Japanese economy in the process of major structural reforms. 7
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V. NEGATIVE EFFECT OF HIGH SPEED GROWTH: ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION. The growth plan that put emphasis on industrial growth caused serious environmental degradation in many parts of Japan. Atmospheric pollution Municipal and industrial areas encountered many acute problems associated with air pollution, beginning in the 1950s. Smoke covered the cities and the number of asthmatic patients increased in major industrial cities. The authority represented a law to control air pollution in 1962 that mainly focused on smoke emission from coal fuel. However, it did not address the increasing industrial use of petroleum fuel that caused sulfa-oxide emission or the increasing emissions from cars and motorbikes. In 1968 this law was revised as the Air Pollution Prevention Law. The law controlled SO 2 emission from factory chimneys. Factories were forced to build very high chimneys up to 100 and 150 meters. Even though this law had many effects in decreasing SO 2 exposure around the factory chimneys, it also created air pollution in a wider area. In 1970, the law was significantly modified in order to allow prefectural governments to set stricter criteria than those set by the 8
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central government, introduce direct penalty against violators, and widen the coverage of regulation from specific regions to nationwide. Nowadays the level of SO
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[Group 11] Japan's overcoming severe pollution in the period of 1950s-1970s and experiences for V

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