[Group 11] Japan's overcoming severe pollution in the period of 1950s-1970s and experiences for V

Facilitated investments small businesses and consumer

Info icon This preview shows pages 7–10. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
facilitated investments, small businesses and consumer-goods and services sectors incurred from shortages in investment funds. This scheme was often criticized as having overly-favored key industries and big businesses. However, this strategy was generally accepted by most Japanese as a ‘trickle-down approach’ to raise incomes and living standards in Japan. In forming this consensus, government’s medium-term economic plans, particularly the National Income Doubling Plan of 1960, contributed significantly. This approach also created the problems associated with ‘dual structure’, although this was basically a great success. A world of difference in productivity, wages and in other working conditions emerged between the favored industries and those that were not. There was a big gap in competitiveness between heavy industries and big businesses on one hand, and consumer-goods and service-related sectors on the other hand. There are 2 reasons for poor performance in the latter: a shortage of investments and a lack of market competition. Up until now, this continues to be a major challenge to the Japanese economy in the process of major structural reforms. 7
Image of page 7

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
V. NEGATIVE EFFECT OF HIGH SPEED GROWTH: ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION. The growth plan that put emphasis on industrial growth caused serious environmental degradation in many parts of Japan. Atmospheric pollution Municipal and industrial areas encountered many acute problems associated with air pollution, beginning in the 1950s. Smoke covered the cities and the number of asthmatic patients increased in major industrial cities. The authority represented a law to control air pollution in 1962 that mainly focused on smoke emission from coal fuel. However, it did not address the increasing industrial use of petroleum fuel that caused sulfa-oxide emission or the increasing emissions from cars and motorbikes. In 1968 this law was revised as the Air Pollution Prevention Law. The law controlled SO 2 emission from factory chimneys. Factories were forced to build very high chimneys up to 100 and 150 meters. Even though this law had many effects in decreasing SO 2 exposure around the factory chimneys, it also created air pollution in a wider area. In 1970, the law was significantly modified in order to allow prefectural governments to set stricter criteria than those set by the 8
Image of page 8
central government, introduce direct penalty against violators, and widen the coverage of regulation from specific regions to nationwide. Nowadays the level of SO 2 emission has declined to 1/10 of the level in 1965. However, NO emission which mainly comes from automobiles still remains at a high level. Water pollution Water pollution was also a serious environmental problem. The water quality generally gets worse in lakes, rivers, seas, and underground water. Emissions of harmful substances from factories caused very serious human diseases that often were fatal. Minamata disease was the most prominent example which caused by
Image of page 9

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 10
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern