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7 constructs such as anxiety can be 1 observed

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7. Constructs such as anxiety can be ...1)observed directly.2)empirical in nature.3)defined in terms of behaviour.Stuvia.com - The study-notes marketplaceDownloaded by: maestrofusa | [email protected]Distribution of this document is illegal
Stuvia.com - The study-notes marketplace138PYC3704 Psychological ResearchOption 3 is the more correct answer.Options 1 and 2 are incorrect because constructs cannot be observed directly and the word`empirical' refers to things or events that can be observed.8. Operational definitions of psychological constructs should define constructs ...1)in terms of observable behaviour.2)in terms of other constructs.3)through measurement.The correct answer is option 1.Option 2 is incorrect because ``operational'' refers to practical procedures by which constructs aremade visible. Constructs are often explained in relation to other constructs, but this is not an`operational' definition. Option 3 is incorrect because, although the defining of constructs in termsof observable behaviour leads to measurement, it is not identical to the measurements.9. Operational definitions enable us to ...1)bridge the gap between theory and observations.2)observe constructs.3)do both of the above.Option 3 is correct because both 1 and 2 are correct.Operational definitions link constructs to observable phenomena so that we can observe them.10. The nature of an hypothesis refers to a rule that tells us ...1)which variables cause, or are associated with, which variable.2)which value of an independent variable is associated with which value of a dependentvariable.3)the nature of the variables as constructs.Option 2 is correct.Option 1 is incorrect because, although hypotheses are about variables, they are about therelation between the variables, not about causes. The nature or rule of the relation is about howthe independent variable relates to the dependent variable. An hypothesis is a statement ofrelationships among variables, not about the nature of variables, so option 3 is not correct.11. Suppose an hypothesis states that X causes Y. We cannot predict Y exactly because ...1)of unknown population or sample values.2)of other variables that also influence Y.3)we might not know the values of X.Option 2 is correct.There are many known and unknown (or hidden) variables that also influence Y.Consider the following hypothesis and then answer items 12 and 13:Hypothesis: The viewing of violent video material is related to aggressive behaviour.12. The independent variable in the hypothesis above is ...1)viewing of violent video material.2)aggressive behaviour.3)There is no independent variable.The correct option is 1.Stuvia.com - The study-notes marketplaceDownloaded by: maestrofusa | [email protected]Distribution of this document is illegal

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