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2.(#4) Briefly distinguish between the “objective” and “subjective” social effects of an offender’s deviant “label.” How do these social effects potentially generate “secondary deviance”?Objective Social Effects: a deviant label may have far reaching consequences for a person’s work life, economic status, political life and social relationship. Ex: felons must contend with the stigma of their felony convictions. Subjective Social Effects: a deviant label may affect how an individual thinks and feels about him/herself; they may apply theassociated stigmatized identity to themselves and incorporates it into their self-concept (a distorted looking glass). This can potentially generate (secondary deviance because if the deviant is looked at in a certain way he will continue to act out in that way to fit into the role that society has given him.) 3.(#5) Discuss Jose’s “double bind.” Also, according to Rios, how do police encourage “street” behavior? How does this encouragement of the code of the streets perpetuate the criminalization of inner city communities? How do the labels attached to Black and Latino youth contribution to “secondary deviance”? Jose’s “double bind” was that when he joined the gang, they protected him from victimization and he realized that there was a lot of victimization by rival gang members after Jose joining the gang. The police encourage “street” behavior by over policing-underpolicing. One example is officers consistently police certain kinds of deviance and crime, while neglecting or ignoring other instances when their help is needed. Since the criminal justice system failed these kids, they do this because they want to get justice for crimes that had been committed against them and couldn’t be solved.4.(#6) Provide a detailed discussion of the stop-and-search scenario outlined byElijah Anderson. In light of this scenario, why, according to Anderson, are 2
African-American youth fearful of both mistaken identity and police harassment? Be sure to consider the process of “secondary deviance” when formulating your answer. Stop and search: this is usually happens late at night when African American males are dressed in gangster clothes. If they are suspected to be moving fast or slow, have a radio or a bag (which may be taken) they are stopped and searched he has to sit in the back of the police car while the police run his name. A young man is stopped by the police and questioned but if he cannot answer the questions he may be accused of a crime. With the lack of resources he is often left with a Public Defender who may just go with the flow instead of defending the poor black kid. Secondary deviance is connected to this because first the stereotypes were created (banning), once they are labeled they take that label andbase their actions off of that label and that label begins to define who he is in society. If he is innocent, the next time he is stopped he will have a record. If the police find nothing