Online marketplaces like thredup which allows peer to

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online marketplaces like ThredUp, which allows peer-to-peer selling of secondhand clothing, swapping platforms like Swapstyle, which enables people to swap fashion worldwide, and local Swishing parties where people share clothes from their own wardrobes. In this regard, clothing or fashion libraries have emerged largely in the scene, which are subscription-based service that allows people to share wardrobes (Pedersen and Netter 2015 ). Overall, such servitized SBMs offer and build a unique relationship with the consumer/user which enhances the brand loyalty and consumer insight. Renting/leasing activities work best either for durable and high-quality products (e.g., workwear, denims) or for seasonal products (e.g., kids wear, maternity wear) mainly because consumers/users fi nd it cheaper than buying while the companies can rent/lease out the product multiple times against a fee (Circle Economy 2015 ). Repairing services, on the other hand, are particularly attractive for garments that easily experience wear and tear and are expensive (e.g., outdoor gear and jeans). Sharing and swapping activities are particularly favorable for clothes which have crossed the end-of-use period during a single lifetime, either permanently or tem- porarily, yet holds a potential for usage in subsequent lives. These SBMs do not require immediate attention toward design strategies, however, in long-term calls for product design for durability, and new partnerships in the network for supporting the value recovery processes, e.g., repairing and washing or end-of-life recycling. VIGGA, for instance, collaborates with an external recycling facility where the baby clothes no longer fi t for circulation (roughly after 82 weeks) are transferred to recycle the fi bers. The fundamental change brought but various SBMs representing this archetype are in terms of reducing the material throughput and resource consumption patterns in the industrial system, and enhancing durability and longevity by increasing the active usage time of the product through reparability, upgradability, etc. (Reim et al. 2015 ). However, it is uncertain whether PSSs are truly ecoef fi cient renting or leasing may not tend to displace purchase of newer products unless being con- sidered simultaneously with other archetypes, for example, creating value for waste, as in case of sharing of secondhand clothes or recycling (Bocken et al. 2014 ). Sustainable Design and Business Models in Textile and Fashion 121
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3.5 Archetype 5 Adopt a Stewardship Role Along this archetype, companies engage in undertaking corporate stewardship, meaning a role to ensure positive impact on the health and well-being of the stakeholders (society and environment). Typically, the consumer pays a price premium to fund the bene fi ts of such stewardship role executed by manufacturer or retailer along the supply chain.
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