It is usually controlled by hand operated dampers in the chimney and breeching

It is usually controlled by hand operated dampers in

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It is usually controlled by hand-operated dampers in the chimney and breeching connecting the boiler to the chimney. Here no fans or blowers are used. The products of combustion are discharged at such a height that it will not be a nuisance to the surrounding community. Mechanical Draft It is draft artificially produced by fans. Three basic types of drafts that are applied are : Balanced Draft: Forced-draft (F-D) fan (blower) pushes air into the furnace and an induced- draft (I-D) fan draws gases into the chimney thereby providing draft to remove the gases from the boiler. Here the pressure is maintained between 0.05 to 0.10 in. of water gauge below atmos- pheric pressure in the case of boilers and slightly positive for reheating and heat treatment fur- naces. Induced Draft: An induced-draft fan draws enough draft for flow into the furnace, causing the products of combustion to discharge to atmosphere. Here the furnace is kept at a slight nega- tive pressure below the atmospheric pressure so that combustion air flows through the system. Forced Draft: The Forced draft system uses a fan to deliver the air to the furnace, forcing com- bustion products to flow through the unit and up the stack. Figure 1.8 High Pressure Gas Mixer
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1. Fuels and Combustion 25 Bureau of Energy Efficiency 1.11 Combustion Controls Combustion controls assist the burner in regulation of fuel supply, air supply, (fuel to air ratio), and removal of gases of combustion to achieve optimum boiler efficiency. The amount of fuel supplied to the burner must be in proportion to the steam pressure and the quantity of steam required. The combustion controls are also necessary as safety device to ensure that the boiler operates safely. Various types of combustion controls in use are: On/Off Control The simplest control, ON/OFF control means that either the burner is firing at full rate or it is OFF. This type of control is limited to small boilers. High/Low/Off Control Slightly more complex is HIGH/LOW/OFF system where the burner has two firing rates. The burner operates at slower firing rate and then switches to full firing as needed. Burner can also revert to low firing position at reduced load. This control is fitted to medium sized boilers. Modulating Control The modulating control operates on the principle of matching the steam pressure demand by altering the firing rate over the entire operating range of the boiler. Modulating motors use conventional mechanical linkage or electric valves to regulate the primary air, secondary air, and fuel supplied to the burner. Full modulation means that boiler keeps firing, and fuel and air are carefully matched over the whole firing range to maximize thermal efficiency.
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1. Fuels and Combustion 26 Bureau of Energy Efficiency REFERENCES 1. Combustion Engineering and Fuel Technology, Oxford & IBH Publishing Company A.K.Shaha W.W.W.
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  • Spring '17
  • Jerome Ramos

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