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ers?Agreed after changes: Is every requirement agreed upon with all rele-vant stakeholders after it has been changed?Conflicts resolved:Have all known conflicts with regard to the require-ments been resolved?7.4Principles of Requirements ValidationConsidering the following six principles of requirements validationincreases the quality of the validation results:Principle 1:Involvement of the correct stakeholdersPrinciple 2:Separating the identification and the correction of errorsPrinciple 3:Validation from different viewsPrinciple 4:Adequate change of documentation typePrinciple 5:Construction of development artifactsPrinciple 6:Repeated validationThe individual principles are explained in the following sections.7.4.1Principle 1: Involvement of the Correct StakeholdersThe choice of stakeholders for requirements validation depends on thegoals of the validation as well as the requirements that are to be audited.When assembling the auditing team, at least the following two aspectsought to be considered.Independenceof the auditorGenerally, it should be avoided that the author of a requirement is alsothe person to validate it. The author will make use of his or her priorknowledge when reading or reviewing the requirement. This prior knowl-edge can negatively influence the identification of errors because potentialerroneous passages of the requirements documentation or the require-
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7.4Principles of Requirements Validation95ments are implicitly and subconsciously amended by the author’s ownknowledge and can thus easily be overlooked.Internal vs. external auditorsSuitable auditors can be identified within or outside of the developingorganization. Internal audits are performed by stakeholders that are mem-bers of the developing organization and can be used to validate inter-mediate results or preliminary requirements. An internal validation is easyto coordinate and organize because the stakeholders are available fromwithin the organization. An external audit requires a higher degree ofeffort because it identifies auditors and (potentially) hires them for pay-ment. In addition, external auditors have to become familiar with the con-text of the system to be developed. Due to the high effort, an externalaudit should be performed only on requirements that exhibit a high levelof quality. 7.4.2Principle 2: Separating the Identification and the Correction of ErrorsBasic principleSeparation between identifying errors and actually fixing them has provenitself in the domain of software quality assurance. The same principle canbe applied to requirements validation. During validation, the flaws identi-fied are documented immediately. After that, each flaw identified is dou-ble-checked to determine whether it really is an error.
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