the Gambia, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Chana, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Benin, Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Mali, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Zaire, and Madagascar -Atlantic slave trade seems to be concentrated out of five ports: 3 in western central Africa(Luanda, Benguela, and Cabinda), and Ouidah in the Bight of Benin, and Bonny in Bight of Biafra) -Largest numbers of enslaved came to the Americas from western central Africa -Congo, Angola (40.8%) -Bights of Benin (19.7%) -Biafra (14.3%) -Ghana (10.1%) -Senegambia Region (4.7%) -Madagascar (4.6%) -Upper Guinea (4.0%) -Windward Coast (1.8%) -Majority went to Brazil (4 million), Spanish-American Empire (2.5 million), British Caribbean (2million), French Caribbean (1.6 million), British North America and the United States (0.5 million), Dutch Caribbean (.5 million), Danish Caribbean (28,000) and Europe (200,000) -Spain was the first to begin to send Africans to the Americas, taking black slaves to join indigenous people in Hispaniola in 1505 -Important African export goods: Ivory, dyewoods, pepper, and other spices -Other trade items: kola nuts and textiles -Commodities for seafaring merchants: palm oil, salt, rice, nuts, yams, gum, fish -Beginning of 1600s, there was an increase in the trade of slaves to accommodate sugar and tobacco production, also meant an increase of people involved in the trade -Sugar alone accounted for the labor of 70 percent of the African imported slave labor in the new World -The expansion of sugar cultivation beyond Brazil in the mid-seventeenth century was important in the development of sugar’s dominance and the growth in numbers of AFricans imported to cultivate it (other crops like tobacco and cacao also fed the agricultural boom) -Those in the first centuries of the Atlantic trade were alo miners, herders, domestic servants, carpenters, wheelwrights, fishermen, and lumbermen -By the 17th century → British started to establish northern colonial outposts in Virginia, Maryland, and the Carolina that helped to create the tobacco boom -Much of the labor used to create these foundational agrarian societies of British North
America was white indentured servants and to a lesser extend indigenous peoples of the Americas, by the last quarter of the 17th century, southern mainland colonies were beginning to claim larger percentages of the African trade British North American Slave Imports -Origins of the enslaved who arrive in North America in the beginning of the 18th century were nodifferent from those being sent to the British Caribbean -Portuguese controlled the trade in the sixteenth century, provided slaves for the sugar plantations of Brazil that became important as early as 1520 -By 1590 the Dutch dominated the forced movement of Africans but by the 18th century British slavers delivered the majority of Africans to New World destinations -The majority of African slaves departed from western central Africa followed by the Bight of Benin, the gold coast, and senegambia all represented numerous cultural and linguistic groups -
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- Winter '18
- Brenda Stevenson
- Atlantic Slave Trade