million tonnes (Chart 2.5). However, between 2014 and 2017 production fell by 62 per cent. Monckton Coke and Chemicals, the only dedicated coke plant in the UK closed in December 2014. However, coke is still being produced and used at steelworks, mainly Port Talbot and Scunthorpe. In 2017, 77 per cent of the UK’s supply of coke oven coke was home produced, with the remainder being imported. Chart 2.5: Total manufactured solid fuels production in the UK 2000 to 2017 2.23 The main purpose of coke oven coke is for use in blast furnaces in the UK iron and steel industry. In 2017, blast furnace use had fallen to 1.8 million tonnes, down 5.6 per cent from 2016. The fall from 2015 to 2016 was larger at 34 per cent. This due to reduced steel production in the UK. Notably, SSI steelworks at Redcar ceased production in mid-September 2015 (with the subsequent closure in October). 2.24 Most of the supply of coke breeze is from re-screened coke oven coke, with direct production accounting for only 3.3 per cent of total supply in 2017. In that year, 47 per cent of coke breeze was used in blast furnaces (0.3 million tonnes) for transformation and 53 per cent used for final consumption (Chart 2.5). 2.25 Other manufactured solid fuels (patent fuels) are manufactured smokeless fuels, produced mainly for the domestic market. A small amount of these fuels (only 24 per cent of total supply in 2017) was imported. 2.26 The carbonisation and gasification of solid fuels in coke ovens produces coke oven gas as a by-product. In 2017, production of coke oven gas was 3.7 TWh, 8.0 per cent higher than in 2016 (3.5 TWh). Some of this (40 per cent) was used to fuel the coke ovens themselves. Another 26 per cent was used for electricity generation, 19 per cent for iron and steel and other industrial processes (including heat production), 10 per cent in blast furnaces and 5 per cent was lost.
47 Chart 2.6: Total manufactured solid fuels consumption in the UK 2000 to 2017 2.27 Blast furnace gas is a by-product of iron smelting in a blast furnace. A similar product is obtained when steel is made in basic oxygen steel (BOS) converters and “BOS” gas is included in this category. Most of these gases are used in other parts of integrated steel works. Production decreased by 3.2 per cent in 2017 compared with 2016. The generation of electricity in 2017 used 52 per cent of total blast furnace gas and BOS gas, while 35 per cent was used in coke ovens and blast furnaces themselves, 11 per cent was lost or burned as waste and a further 2 per cent was used in the iron and steel industry. 2.28 Demand for benzole and tars increased by 4.7 per cent from 531 GWh in 2016 to 556 GWh in 2017, all of which was met by domestic production. From 2009, based on information from the EU- ETS, all consumption of these products has been allocated to non-energy use – see also paragraph 2.50 (d) and (e).