Hyperactive fidgeting leaving seat climbing

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Hyperactive – fidgeting, leaving seat, climbing excessively, talking too much No off switch Impulsive – interrupts others, trouble waiting o Combined presentation – with all three Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder o ODD refuse to comply to commands o Hostile and angry, argumentative, bullying, spiteful, and overly sensitive o May evolve into a more severe condition: conduct disorder o Juvenile delinquency, involves a consistent pattern of violating the rights of others o Four main categories: Aggressive towards others and animals – using weapons and tourting, assaulting, stealing, rape Destroy propterty Conduct disorder lie to others to get something / to avoid punishment. Stealing Violate laws or rules Epidemiology o ADHD – 5-12% of children, 8.7% of adolescents, and 4% of adults o ODD 2-11% of 5-17 year olds. o More common in boys o 47% of ODD develops into conduct disorder o Conduct Disorder 2-12% of 5-17 year olds o Also more common in boys o Girls show less aggressive behaviors o Comorbid with other mental conditions, anxity, depressive, learning, and substance use disorders. o African American youth (54.9), Hispanics (28.7%), and European Americans (16.2%)
Stigma with Disruptive Behavior Disorders o Don't want ADHD next door 22.2% or a child to befriend with ADHD 23.5% o Do not want to spend evening with ADHD 16.9% o Children with ADHD in class 19.3% Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Causes and Prevention Biological Risk Factors Genetic Influences o Strong genetic evidence o Disorder runs in families o Parents and sibilings of children with ADHD = 2-8x more likely o Twin studies – 76% for ADHD onset o Disorder often focus on aggression and emotionality Neurochemical Features o Deficiencies or imlalanes in dopamine and norepinephrine, especially in prefrontal brain areas. o Low serotonin for youths with aggression and conduct disorder o Low cortisol and higher testosterone among youths with disruptive behavior disorders Brain Features Brain changes for disruptive behavior disorders. o Smaller or different volumes of key brain areas for ADHD. Esp with prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, canudate, putamen, pallidum, corpus callosum, and cerebellum Personality Factors Callous-unemotional traits – lack guilt or remorse for their hurtful acts toward others, show little emotion, are empathetic to others, and manipulate others for their own gratification. Environmental Risk Factors Teratogens Youth has been more exposed to various prenatal teratogens. Family Conflict and Parenting Practices Conflict in a marrage relates to disruptive behavior problems in youth Coercion parenting escalate to extreme forms of misbehavior Deviant Peers Rejected by nondeviant peers and have hostile interpersonal relationship.

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