MBA
349EN140.pdf

# Diagram helps identify possible reasons for a process

• 292

This preview shows pages 255–257. Sign up to view the full content.

diagram helps identify possible reasons for a process to go out of control as well as possible effects on the process. 4. Scatter Diagram (Scatter Plots) It often indicates the relationship between two variables. They are often used as follow-ups to a cause and effect analysis to determine whether a stated cause truly does impact the quality characteristics. 5. Histogram (or) Bar Charts It displays the large amounts of data that are difficult to interpret in their raw form. A histogram summarizes data measured on a continuous scale showing the frequency distribution of some quality characteristics (in statistical terms the central tendency and the dispersion of the data). 25 20. a o, o, a a Q a a ft a a <& T < S ,<a <a N - 1? ¦ >>• V - «? A - %• q,?^ - N s?^V- ,\$>• N V ^ Category Histogram Often the mean of the data is indicated on the histogram. A bar chart is a series of bare representing the frequency of occurrence of data characteristics, the bar height indicates the number of times a particular quality characteristic was observed. 6. Flow Charts (or) Graphs It shows the sequence of events in a process. They are used for manufacturing and service operations. Flow charts are often used to diagram operational procedures to simplify the system. They can identify bottlenecks, redundant steps and non-value added activities. A realistic flow chart can be constructed by using the knowledge of the person who are directly involved in the particular process. The flow chart can be identifies where delays can occur. 7. Control Charts It distinguishes special causes of variations from common causes of variation. They are used to monitor and control process on an ongoing basis. A typical control chart plots a selected quality characteristic found from sub-group of observations as a function of sample number. Characteristics such as sample average, sample range and sample proportion of non-conforming units are plotted. The centre line on a control chart represents the average value of characteristics being plotted. Two limits know as the upper control limit (UCL) and lower control limit (LCL) are also shown on control charts. These limits are constructed so that if the process is operating under a stable system of chance causes, the problem of an observation falling outside these limits is quite small.

This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

250 20.3.17. BENEFITS OF TQM The benefits of TQM can be classified into the following two categories: 1. Customer satisfaction oriented benefits. 2. Economic improvements oriented benefits. 1. Customer satisfaction oriented benefits: The benefits under this category are listed below: (a) Improvement in product quality. (b) Improvement in product design. (c) Improvement in production flow. (d) Improvement in employee morale and quality consciousness. (e) Improvement of product service. (f) Improvement in market place acceptance. 2. Economic improvements oriented benefits: The benefits under this category are as follows: (a) Reductions in operating costs. (b) Reductions in operating losses. (c) Reductions in field service costs. (d) Reductions in liability exposure.
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.
• Spring '12
• abc

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

### What students are saying

• As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

• I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

• The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern