Diagram helps identify possible reasons for a process

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diagram helps identify possible reasons for a process to go out of control as well as possible effects on the process. 4. Scatter Diagram (Scatter Plots) It often indicates the relationship between two variables. They are often used as follow-ups to a cause and effect analysis to determine whether a stated cause truly does impact the quality characteristics. 5. Histogram (or) Bar Charts It displays the large amounts of data that are difficult to interpret in their raw form. A histogram summarizes data measured on a continuous scale showing the frequency distribution of some quality characteristics (in statistical terms the central tendency and the dispersion of the data). 25 20. a o, o, a a Q a a ft a a <& T < S ,<a <a N - 1? ¦ >>• V - «? A - %• q,?^ - N s?^V- ,$>• N V ^ Category Histogram Often the mean of the data is indicated on the histogram. A bar chart is a series of bare representing the frequency of occurrence of data characteristics, the bar height indicates the number of times a particular quality characteristic was observed. 6. Flow Charts (or) Graphs It shows the sequence of events in a process. They are used for manufacturing and service operations. Flow charts are often used to diagram operational procedures to simplify the system. They can identify bottlenecks, redundant steps and non-value added activities. A realistic flow chart can be constructed by using the knowledge of the person who are directly involved in the particular process. The flow chart can be identifies where delays can occur. 7. Control Charts It distinguishes special causes of variations from common causes of variation. They are used to monitor and control process on an ongoing basis. A typical control chart plots a selected quality characteristic found from sub-group of observations as a function of sample number. Characteristics such as sample average, sample range and sample proportion of non-conforming units are plotted. The centre line on a control chart represents the average value of characteristics being plotted. Two limits know as the upper control limit (UCL) and lower control limit (LCL) are also shown on control charts. These limits are constructed so that if the process is operating under a stable system of chance causes, the problem of an observation falling outside these limits is quite small.
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250 20.3.17. BENEFITS OF TQM The benefits of TQM can be classified into the following two categories: 1. Customer satisfaction oriented benefits. 2. Economic improvements oriented benefits. 1. Customer satisfaction oriented benefits: The benefits under this category are listed below: (a) Improvement in product quality. (b) Improvement in product design. (c) Improvement in production flow. (d) Improvement in employee morale and quality consciousness. (e) Improvement of product service. (f) Improvement in market place acceptance. 2. Economic improvements oriented benefits: The benefits under this category are as follows: (a) Reductions in operating costs. (b) Reductions in operating losses. (c) Reductions in field service costs. (d) Reductions in liability exposure.
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