Adrenal glands- two glands in one: adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex. Adrenal medulla- (straight neural connection down spinal cord action potential to release hormones from short term stress) nervous tissue, part of the sympathetic nervous system; chromaffin cells secrete (catecholamines) epinephrine (80%) and norepinephrine (20%); cause (sympathetic nervous system effects; it is the HOW in SNS effects) blood glucose levels to rise, blood levels to constrict, heart to beat faster, and blood to be directed to the heart, brain, and skeletal muscle; epinephrine stimulates metabolic activities, bronchial dilation, and blood flow to skeletal muscles and the heart (inhalers); norepinephrine influences peripheral vasoconstriction and blood pressure (runner’s high) Adrenal cortex- (prolonged stress hormone release takes longer) three layers of glandular tissue that secrete and synthesize corticosteroids. Three layers that produce three different corticosteroids: Zona glomerulosa: mineralocorticoids, Sodium effects extracellular fluid volume, blood volume, blood pressure, and ion levels. Potassium sets resting membrane potential (RMP) of cells, Aldosterone stimulates Sodium absorption and water retention by the kidneys, controls water volume in tissues (this increases blood pressure like full pipes), used to help control water balance, sodium follows water.
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- Spring '17
- Gregory Katsaros
- Endocrine System, Cortisol, Adrenal cortex