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Pull system:System for moving work where a workstation pulls output from the preceding station as needed. (Demand triggers execution)Push system:System for moving work where output is pushed to the next station as it is completed (Forecasts and speculation trigger execution)How does JIT differ from a traditional capacity mgmt?Capacity preciselyfollows demandNo inventory for breakdowns or demand fluctuationsZero margin for errorAll hands on deck: Entire Operation shuts down Employees organized in self-directed teamsOverriding respect for the workplaceDeep, highly synchronized relationships with suppliersDifficult to actually do. Must be nested with Lean Management System of supporting culture & activitiesFocus on eliminating all non-value added activityContinuous, incremental, & systemic pursuit zero-waste.Problems made obviousHigh Quality AND Low CostShort Lead Time (LT)Batch size = how many units can be made (not always the exact amount of liters/volume produced in that step)WIP: between batches or at the decoupling pointLine vs. cell: cell workers are trained to do any part of the job, cells are demand pull while linesare production push systemsLine vs. continuous: discrete value added in line, product variety while continuous has no variety and is highly automated
Quality Management Dimension: -Performance-Conformance-Reliability-DurabilityCost of quality:Quality Control Tools Fishbone (Cause and effect) Diagram: Good for root cause determination (method, materials, environment, people, equipment)Scatter Diagram: Are A & B correlated? May indicate a relationship between the variables, Often overusedRun chart: A run chart shows the history and pattern of variation over time and is used to detect trends or shifts in the data. (same as histogram)Control Chart: Help detect the correctable causes of variations, you can track improvementsThe voice of the process: 68-95-99.7, 6 sigma is99.9997