The women do not share the same degree of relation between this modernmedia and their ancestors, though some do make the connection (just not as strongly). This is because where the men’s ideal is focused on keeping enemies out and protecting the village from “predators”, women instead focus on unifying the differing groups, utilizing marriage, drink, and hostingfestivals. By doing this it seems the women are somewhat able to subdue the men’s “inhuman desire to kill”, and to create unity in the community. This is how the different roles of men and women work together in the community.“This understanding of gender and agency support the broader assertion from masculinity studies that manhood should be considered in terms of relations between women and men. However, rather than asserting masculinity and femininity as gendered oppositions, Waorani men express their gendered agency in relation to previous generations and kowari people and images. It is perhaps for this reason that emerging masculinitiesare not predicated on gendered antagonisms and seldom lead to male violence against women.” pg. 259Urban Masculinity:Gender in Crisis?259The increasing frequency with which men earn money in the market economy has led to a devaluation of women’s labor in agriculture and domestic life. High says that “these changes reveal that femininities and masculinities are never fixed, but instead “formed and reformed thorugh interactions with broader historical processes and events” (Hodgeson 4
1999: 125)” pg. 260. Where women have had great success in fulfilling their traditional gender roles (producing manioc, having and raising children, and creating unity in the community), men have failed to uphold these traditional roles, the most important of which is the ability to provideand share goods with your kin. Once this was done through hunting and killing big game, and stealing people and valuable from their enemies (I am inferring that objects were taken too, as it’s stated that a woman from an enemy village was stolen to become a man’s wife). Today, Waorani men, if they must live and work in the world economy, are expected to bring homefood and supplies to share with their kin. The low wages these men are given makes this especially difficult, and so they are seen as becoming more like “outsiders”, who are selfish and unwilling to share as well as lacking the masculinity needed to provide. In response, some young Waorani put on a performance for tourists that displays things that would be durani bai. They cosplay as an idealized version of their ancestors. In thisway they are able to reclaim some of their masculinity, even if it is pretend.In addition to their culture’s gendered expectations of them, these young men also have to struggle with the “modern” Equadorian views of masculinity, which emphasizes drink, hypersexuality, and a gender hierarchy. On both sides, they tend to fall short.