Q: What was Meerut rebellion? On 6th May, 1857 A.D. when the new cartridges were issued to 90 Indian soldiers in Meerut, 85 of them refused to bite them with their teeth. These 85 soldiers were court-martialled and sentenced to 10 years’ imprisonment. They were stripped of their uniforms in the presence of the entire Indian garrison. On 10th May 1857, the Indian soldiers at Meerut broke into open revolt. They released their companions and murdered a few European officers. The sky was rent with deafening shouts of “Maro Firangee Ko”.Q: Who was Mangal Pandey? Mangal Pandey, a resident of Ballia, in Uttar Pradesh, was a soldier in the army of the British East India Company. At the time of the First War of Independence, the company introduced new rifles, which used animal fat for greasing the cartridges. Influenced by the example of his compatriots in Berhampur, Mangal Panday refused to use the greased cartridges and broke into open mutiny on March 29, 1857, at Barrackpore near Calcutta and urged his comrades to join him. Q: Who was Tatya Tope? Tatya Tope also known as Ram Chandra Pandurang was born in 1814 at village Gola in Maharashtra. In May 1857, when the political storm was gaining momentum, he won over the Indian troops of the East India Company, stationed at Kanpur, established Nana Saheb's authority and became the Commander-in-Chief of his revolutionary forces. After the reoccupation of Kanpur and separation from Nana Saheb, Tatya Tope shifted his headquarters to Kalpi to join hands with Rani Lakshmi Bai and led a revolt in Bundelkhand.
Q: Who was Chatrapati Shivaji? Shivaji Bhosle, also known as Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle was the founder of Maratha Empire in western India in 1674. He raised a strong army and navy, constructed and repaired forts, used guerilla warfare tactics, developed a strong intelligence network, gave equal treatment to the people from all religions and castes based on merit, and functioned like a seasoned Statesman and General. He appointed ministers with specific functions such as internal security, Foreign affairs, Finance, Law and Justice, Religious matters, Defense etc. He introduced systems in revenue collection and warned the officials against harassment of subjects. He thought ahead of times and was a true visionary Q: What was the Queen’s ProclamationAct 1858? Answer: Queen Victoria issued a proclamation called the 'Magna Carta of Indian Liberty on November 1, 1858, placing India under direct government of the Crown, whereby: (a) A viceroy was appointed in India (b) Princes were given the right to adopt a son (abolition of Doctrine of Lapse) (c) Treaties were honored (d) Religious freedom was restored and equality treatment promised to Indians. Q: What was Vernacular Press Act?  It was given by the British in 1878 to control Press and Publication of India. It brought a better control of the British Crown on the revolutionary writers who were writing against the brutality of the British during and after the War of Independence.
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