I ground state orbital i the orbital energy depends

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I Ground-state orbital:
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I The orbital energy depends on R . I The sum of the energy of the electron and nuclear-nuclear repulsion energy is the effective potential energy experienced by the nuclei. Both terms of the effective potential depend on R . V eff R I The shape of the effective potential implies that a molecule below its dissociation energy vibrates, i.e. a diatomic molecule behaves like two balls connected by a spring.
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Interpretation of the effective potential 0 R eq = bond length V eff R Nuclear-nuclear repulsion Long-range attraction zero-point energy Dissociation energy
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Key lessons learned from H + 2 1. Electrons in molecules do not belong to particular atoms. Rather, electrons occupy molecular orbitals which extend over the entire molecule. As with atomic orbitals, we can have several molecular orbitals. 2. The energy of a molecular orbital depends on the positions of the nuclei (on the separation R in a diatomic molecule). 3. There is an equilibrium geometry (a point where the forces are zero or, equivalently, a point of minimum energy) around which the molecule vibrates. This geometry defines the bond lengths from which we get (for example) covalent atomic radii.
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