100%(89)89 out of 89 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 16 - 20 out of 23 pages.
1.Derived from outside the host.2.Indirectly affects hypothalamus through endogenous pyrogens.ii.Endogenous Pyrogens1.Cytokines can be endogenous pyrogens.2.Raise thermoregulatory set point through stimulation of prostaglandin synthesis and turnover in thermoregulatory(brain) and nonthermoregulatory (peripheral) tissue.f.Discuss the pathological effects and properties of staphylococcal, e coli, and candida infections. Staphylococcal
Gram +Normal on skin and nasal passages.Most infections=localized, red, pustule on skin.Adhere to tissues through surface proteins which attach to connective tissue and endothelium.Produce polysaccharides which protect against phagocytosis.Example=MRSA.E coliGram -, rod shaped, anaerobic.Most significant enteric(gi) bacteria.Part of normal flora.Pili adhesion molecules bind with glycoproteins expressed on bladder epithelium.Main cause of UTIMain cause of meningitis in infants bc they lack IgM antibodies.Enteropathogenic E coli-diarrhea in infants=DEVELOPING countriesEnterotoxigenic Ecoli-traveler’s diarrhea, infant diarrhea in developed countries.Shiga Toxin-Produces toxin for hemorrhagic diarrhea.CandidaYeast in normal adultsMost common fungal infx. in humans.Normally kept at bay from local defense mechanismsPart of normal flora.Vaginitis or oropharyngeal infection(thrush)Stays localized.Immunocompromised-spread (dissemination), shock, dic, death.Most common fungal infx in cancer, transplants, hiv/aids.g.Evaluate the etiology, clinical manifestations and pathophysiology for influenza, measles, and HIV infection. Viral Infection IncubationEtiologyModes of Transmission
InfluenzaA,B,C1-4 daysSingle strand virus.AB go through antigenic shifts causing them to mutate. (flu strands).Airborne, droplet, direct contact.Measles6-19 daysRubeola virus.Causes immunosuppression.Respiratory droplets.Remain alive on surfaces or air=2hrs.HIV Infection Up to 12 weeks post exposure.HIV 1-Most commonHIV2-West Africa.Blood, needles, bodily fluid, maternaltransmission, breast milk.i.Differentiate between clinical manifestations and pathophysiology of influenza, and measles and describe the clinical implications for your practice as a nurse practitioner. Viral Infection Clinical ManifestationsPathophysiologyClinical Implications InfluenzaFever, myalgia’s, dry cough, ha, may lead to pna.Fatal elderly and children.Single Stranded RNA.Virions attach to respiratory epithelial and enter via endocytosis.Viron expresses 2 surface proteins.HA-necessary for entry into cell by binding to glycan receptors.NA-necessaryfor release of new virions from infected cells by cleaving cellular sialic acids.Flu vaccine.Antigenic drift-minor mutations, last year flu shot lessens effects.Antigenic shift- majorchange, obtains new NA or HA antigen, leads to outbreaks bc no previous protection.MeaslesFever, malaise, anorexia, Systemic infection that causes Vaccine.